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Table 1 Randomized clinical trials

From: Non-celiac wheat sensitivity: rationality and irrationality of a gluten-free diet in individuals affected with non-celiac disease: a review

References Design N Dose Control Treatment Wash-out Run-in Challenge Outcome
Biesiekierski [84] DB-RCT 34 16 g/days GF bread or muffin 6 weeks No data Muffins/bread slices IBS-triggered by gluten challenge
Carroccio [14] DBPC 50 10 g/days Xylose 2 weeks 1 weeks 4 weeks elimination Capsules wheat GS-Symptoms triggered by wheat
Biesiekierski [85] DB, cross-over 22 16 g/days Gluten-low (2 g/days), placebo 2 weeks 2 weeks 6d GFD, 2 weeks low FODMAP Gluten-rich meals No symptoms by gluten challenge
Di Sabatino [86] DBPC, cross-over 61 4.4 g/days   1 weeks 1 weeks GFD Capsules gluten IBS-triggered by gluten challenge
Shahbazkhani [87] DBPC 72 50 g/days Sachet powder rice flour 6 weeks No data GFD 6 months Sachet gluten meal IBS-triggered by gluten challenge
Zanini [88] DBPC, cross-over 35 10 g/days Sachet GF-flour 10 days 2 weeks GFD > 3 months Sachet gluten IBS-triggered by gluten challenge
Zanwar [89] DBPC 60 No data GF bread 4 weeks No data GFD 1 months Bread IBS-triggered by gluten challenge
Elli [90] DBPC, cross-over 98 5.6 g/days Rice starch 7 days 7 days GFD × 3 weeks Capsules gluten IBS-triggered by gluten challenge
Skodje (2017) [91] Open challenge 56 120 g/days No control 3–14 days No data GFD 16 months Bread GS-Symptoms triggered by wheat
Skodje [61] DBPC, cross-over 59 5.7 g/days GF low FODMAP muesli 7 days 7 days GFD > 6 months Muesli bars gluten + FOS IBS-triggered by fructan challenge
Dale [92] DBPC 20 11 g/days Rice starch 4 days 3 days GFD 6 weeks Muffin gluten IBS-triggered by gluten challenge