This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Endoscopic resection of duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm in diameter
© Yokoyama et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 4 November 2010
Accepted: 10 June 2011
Published: 10 June 2011
Endoscopic treatment for duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm is still controversial. This report presents four cases successfully treated with endosonography (EUS)-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) procedure for duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm in diameter.
The case series of four patients diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor from 2003 to 2008 were reviewed. EUS demonstrated well-defined hypoechoic tumors confined to the submucosal hyperechoic layer and the underlying hypoechoic muscularis propria was intact in all four patients. EMR were planned and performed for the duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumors larger than 10 mm.
En bloc resections with tumor free lateral and basal margins were accomplished using an endoscopic diathermic snare with forward-viewing instruments without any complications. Neither residual duodenal neuroendocrine tumors nor metastatic lesions were detected during the observation period ranging 19 to 78 months
Duodenal bulb neuroendocrine, larger than 10 mm in diameter, can be treated by endoscopic procedure, after confirming that the tumor confined to the submucosal layer in EUS examination, and no lymph node involvement by abdominal CT and US.
Recently, endoscopic resection of neuroendocrine of the duodenum is increasingly performed as an alternative to conventional surgery. Most reports state that duodenal neuroendocrine tumor can be treated by endoscopic excision, when the diameter is less than 10 mm and there is no invasion of the muscularis propria . On the other hand, others have shown that the features associated with metastatic risk are a diameter greater than 2 cm , and those with duodenal neuroendocrine tumor with a diameter larger than 10 mm can be successfully treated by endoscopic procedure [3, 4]. Therefore, it is controversial whether endoscopic treatment is appropriate for duodenal neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm in diameter. This report describes the successful EUS-assisted EMR for duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumors larger than 10 mm in diameter.
Endoscopic procedure and complications
Duration of Surgery (minutes)
Characteristics of four duodenal cartinoid tumor
Duodenal neroendocrine tumor, formerly termed as carcinoid tumor, is rare entity. The tumors is derived from enterochromaffin cells, and often occurred in gastrointestinal tract. Only 2.6% duodenal carcinoid tumors is reported of all carcinoid tumors in the United States. The rarity makes difficulty to address the feasibility of the endoscopic treatment for this tumor. Although larger study is needed to confirm the indication of endoscopic procedure for the tumor, small case series like our study is also important for uncommon tumor.
Surgical resection is generally recommended for neuroendocrine tumor due to the risk of lymph node involvement . Endoscopic treatment such as EMR or endoscopic submucosal dissection is an alternative to conventional surgery including a duodenal resection in patients with neuroendocrine tumor of the duodenum, since recent development of endoscopic technology makes it possible to detect small and early neuroendocrine tumors. EMR technique was successful and safe for most small duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor[1, 7–10]. Some report mentioned that EMR procedure is also useful for neuroendocrine tumor located on the second portion. Although more case series for duodenal neuroendocrine tumor is needed, EMR technique is a safety procedure for small neuroendocrine tumors.
The appropriate indication criteria are needed to perform endoscopic treatment, because neuroendocrine tumor is considered to have malignant potential for metastasis. Burke described that the features associated with increased risk of metastasis included involvement of the muscularis propria, size larger than 20 mm, and the presence of mitotic figures . Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors smaller than 20 mm can be treated safely with local excision alone . The metastatic rates of neuroendocrine tumor are proportional to the size of the tumor: 8.3% with tumors smaller than 5 mm, 10.5% with tumors between 5.1 and 10 mm, 17.4% with tumors between 10.1 and 15 mm, and 8.8% with those between 15.1 and 20 mm . Therefore, if neuroendocrine tumor smaller than 20 mm in diameter is diagnosed to be localized within the submucosal layer by EUS examination, endoscopic resection may be one of the option for the treatment.
Preoperative EUS, examining not only the depth of tumor but also lymph node involvement, is an important modality for determination of endoscopic respectability, when neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm in diameter is evaluated for the surgical options [7, 9], since neuroendocrine tumor with invasion to the muscularis propria is associated with metastasis. Meanwhile, it is recommended that full-thickness resection of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract should be performed if the neuroendocrine tumor has extensively infiltrated the submucosal layer or involves the muscle layer, because conventional EMR does not eliminate the possibility of tumor seeding in the vertical margin due to the burning effect[14, 15]. Therefore, endoscopic resection must be performed, after confirming that the tumor is confined to the submucosal layer and there is no metastasis. Moreover, endoscopic treatment must be followed by histopathological examination confirming that additional surgical treatment is required or not. In the current series, histopathological investigations supported that EUS assisted EMR can be performed safely and completely.
The present report described that four patients with duodenal neuroendocrine larger than 10 mm in diameter could be endoscopically resected. There was no evidence of residual tumor and metastasis during the follow up period ranging 19 to 78 months. Further follow-up is required to address this technique is safely for long-term outcome of neuroendocrine tumors. After confirming that the tumor confined to the submucosal layer by EUS examination, and no lymph node involvement by abdominal CT and US, duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor, larger than 10 mm in diameter, can be treated by endoscopic procedure.
- Dalenback J, Havel G: Local endoscopic removal of duodenal carcinoid tumors. Endoscopy. 2004, 36: 651-655. 10.1055/s-2004-814539.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burke AP, Sobin LH, Federspiel BH, Shekitka KM, Helwig EB: Carcinoid tumors of the duodenum. A clinicopathologic study of 99 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1990, 114: 700-704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alberti-Flor JJ, Hernandez ME, Ferrer JP: Endoscopic polypectomy of a large duodenal carcinoid. Gastrointest Endosc. 1993, 39: 853-854. 10.1016/S0016-5107(93)70288-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pungpapong S, Woodward TA, Wallace MB, Krishna M, Raimondo M: EUS-assisted EMR of a large duodenal carcinoid tumor. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006, 63: 703-704. 10.1016/j.gie.2005.09.042. discussion 704View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Modlin IM, Lye KD, Kidd M: A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors. Cancer. 2003, 97: 934-959. 10.1002/cncr.11105.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheek RC, Wilson H: Carcinoid tumors. Curr Probl Surg. 1970, 4-31.Google Scholar
- Yoshikane H, Suzuki T, Yoshioka N, Ogawa Y, Hamajima E, Hasegawa N, Hasegawa C: Duodenal carcinoid tumor: endosonographic imaging and endoscopic resection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995, 90: 642-644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perng CL, Lin HJ, Wang K, Lai CR, Lee SD: Treatment of duodenal carcinoid by strip biopsy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1995, 20: 168-171. 10.1097/00004836-199503000-00023. discussion 171-162View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nishimori I, Morita M, Sano S, Kino-Ohsaki J, Kohsaki T, Suenaga K, Yokoyama Y, Onishi S, Sugimoto T, Araki K: Endosonography-guided endoscopic resection of duodenal carcinoid tumor. Endoscopy. 1997, 29: 214-217. 10.1055/s-2007-1004167.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshikane H, Goto H, Niwa Y, Matsui M, Ohashi S, Suzuki T, Hamajima E, Hayakawa T: Endoscopic resection of small duodenal carcinoid tumors with strip biopsy technique. Gastrointest Endosc. 1998, 47: 466-470. 10.1016/S0016-5107(98)70246-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamamoto C, Aoyagi K, Suekane H, Iida M, Hizawa K, Kuwano Y, Nakamura S, Fujishima M: Carcinoid tumors of the duodenum: report of three cases treated by endoscopic resection. Endoscopy. 1997, 29: 218-221. 10.1055/s-2007-1004168.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zyromski NJ, Kendrick ML, Nagorney DM, Grant CS, Donohue JH, Farnell MB, Thompson GB, Farley DR, Sarr MG: Duodenal carcinoid tumors: how aggressive should we be?. J Gastrointest Surg. 2001, 5: 588-593. 10.1016/S1091-255X(01)80100-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soga J: Early-stage carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract: an analysis of 1914 reported cases. Cancer. 2005, 103: 1587-1595. 10.1002/cncr.20939.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toyonaga T, Nakamura K, Araki Y, Shimura H, Tanaka M: Laparoscopic treatment of duodenal carcinoid tumor. Wedge resection of the duodenal bulb under endoscopic control. Surg Endosc. 1998, 12: 1085-1087. 10.1007/s004649900786.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsujimoto H, Ichikura T, Nagao S, Sato T, Ono S, Aiko S, Hiraki S, Yaguchi Y, Sakamoto N, Tanimizu T, Yamamoto J, Hase K: Minimally invasive surgery for resection of duodenal carcinoid tumors: endoscopic full-thickness resection under laparoscopic observation. Surg Endosc. 24: 471-475.Google Scholar
- Urso E, Pucciarelli S, Cassaro M, Agostini M, Nitti D: Long-term follow-up after endoscopic forceps biopsies for early stage duodenal carcinoid: case report and review of endoscopic treatments. Endoscopy. 2007, 39 (Suppl 1): E128-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-230X/11/67/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.