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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and laboratory parameters of all patients

From: Establishment of MELD-lactate clearance scoring system in predicting death risk of critically ill cirrhotic patients

Variables Total (n = 881) ICU-survival group (n = 628) ICU-death group (n = 253) Statistics P
Age, years, Mean ± SD 58.65 ± 11.57 58.33 ± 11.20 59.47 ± 12.43 t =  − 1.260 0.207
Gender, n (%)     χ2 = 1.734 0.188
Female 288 (32.69) 197 (31.37) 91 (35.97)   
Male 593 (67.31) 431 (68.63) 162 (64.03)   
Insurance, n (%)     χ2 = 0.725 0.696
Medicare 378 (42.91) 271 (43.15) 107 (42.29)   
Others 203 (23.04) 140 (22.29) 63 (24.90)   
Private 300 (34.05) 217 (34.55) 83 (32.81)   
ICU type, n (%)     χ2 = 11.233 0.004
MICU 486 (55.16) 327 (52.07) 159 (62.85)   
CCU/CSRU 95 (10.78) 66 (10.51) 29 (11.46)   
SICU/TSICU 300 (34.05) 235 (37.42) 65 (25.69)   
Marital, n (%)     χ2 = 0.955 0.812
Married 389 (44.15) 272 (43.31) 117 (46.25)   
Single 316 (35.87) 226 (35.99) 90 (35.57)   
Widowed 52 (5.90) 38 (6.05) 14 (5.53)   
Divorced/separated 124 (14.07) 92 (14.65) 32 (12.65)   
Race, n (%)     χ2 = 5.776 0.217
White 688 (78.09) 490 (78.03) 198 (78.26)   
Black 76 (8.63) 49 (7.80) 27 (10.67)   
Asian 26 (2.95) 17 (2.71) 9 (3.56)   
Hispanic 48 (5.45) 40 (6.37) 8 (3.16)   
Others 43 (4.88) 32 (5.10) 11 (4.35)   
ACLF, n (%)     χ2 = 62.746  < 0.001
No 325 (36.89) 283 (45.06) 42 (16.60)   
Yes 556 (63.11) 345 (54.94) 211 (83.40)   
Pathogenesis, n (%)     χ2 = 2.252 0.324
Alcoholic 426 (48.35) 298 (47.45) 128 (50.59)   
No alcoholic 438 (49.72) 320 (50.96) 118 (46.64)   
Biliary 17 (1.93) 10 (1.59) 7 (2.77)   
Hepatic encephalopathy, n (%) 224 (25.43) 159 (25.32) 65 (25.69) χ2 = 0.013 0.908
Ascites, n (%) 281 (31.90) 200 (31.85) 81 (32.02) χ2 = 0.002 0.961
Hepatocerebral syndrome, n (%) 153 (17.37) 100 (15.92) 53 (20.95) χ2 = 3.173 0.075
RRT, n (%) 81 (9.19) 46 (7.32) 35 (13.83) χ2 = 9.152 0.002
Vasopressors, n (%) 290 (32.92) 124 (19.75) 166 (65.61) χ2 = 171.822  < 0.001
Ventilation, n (%) 369 (41.88) 261 (41.56) 108 (42.69) χ2 = 0.094 0.759
Transplantation, n (%) 106 (12.03) 104 (16.56) 2 (0.79) χ2 = 42.375  < 0.001
Temperature, ℃, Mean ± SD 36.66 ± 0.86 36.70 ± 0.84 36.54 ± 0.89 t = 2.590 0.010
Heart rate, times/min, Mean ± SD 94.90 ± 18.76 93.51 ± 18.51 98.34 ± 18.97 t =  − 3.480  < 0.001
SBP, Mean ± SD 119.88 ± 20.35 121.07 ± 20.52 116.91 ± 19.66 t = 2.760 0.006
DBP, M (Q1, Q3) 63.00 (53.00, 72.00) 63.00 (54.50, 72.00) 61.00 (50.00, 71.00) Z =  − 2.346 0.019
MAP, Mean ± SD 77.37 ± 17.96 78.39 ± 17.32 74.83 ± 19.28 t = 2.550 0.011
SPO2/FiO2, M (Q1, Q3) 100.00 (98.00, 194.00) 100.00 (99.00, 198.00) 100.00 (96.00, 178.00) Z =  − 3.917  < 0.001
PaO2/FiO2, M (Q1, Q3) 278.00 (170.00, 395.00) 310.00 (183.33, 418.00) 220.00 (136.67, 322.00) Z =  − 6.493  < 0.001
Bilirubin, mg/dL, M (Q1, Q3) 2.50 (1.20, 6.20) 2.10 (1.00, 5.00) 4.00 (1.80, 10.30) Z = 6.223  < 0.001
Creatinine, mg/dL, M (Q1, Q3) 1.20 (0.90, 2.20) 1.10 (0.80, 1.90) 1.60 (1.00, 2.80) Z = 5.606  < 0.001
INR, M (Q1, Q3) 1.70 (1.40, 2.20) 1.60 (1.30, 2.00) 2.10 (1.70, 2.60) Z = 10.699  < 0.001
PT, M (Q1, Q3) 17.60 (14.90, 21.40) 16.80 (14.60, 20.10) 19.70 (16.30, 24.20) Z = 6.917  < 0.001
Albumin, Mean ± SD 2.86 ± 0.66 2.93 ± 0.66 2.67 ± 0.61 t = 5.540  < 0.001
Glucose, M (Q1, Q3) 118.00 (97.00, 155.00) 120.00 (99.00, 158.50) 116.00 (92.00, 146.00) Z =  − 1.858 0.063
PH, Mean ± SD 7.36 ± 0.11 7.37 ± 0.10 7.33 ± 0.14 t = 4.790  < 0.001
Sodium, mmol/L, Mean ± SD 135.62 ± 6.78 136.04 ± 6.31 134.58 ± 7.75 t = 2.670 0.008
Potassium, mmol/L, Mean ± SD 4.39 ± 0.97 4.36 ± 0.94 4.47 ± 1.03 t =  − 1.510 0.131
Hemoglobin, g/dL, Mean ± SD 10.84 ± 2.39 10.93 ± 2.41 10.64 ± 2.32 t = 1.650 0.099
WBC, 109/L, M (Q1, Q3) 8.90 (5.70, 13.60) 8.40 (5.40, 12.55) 10.30 (6.30, 14.90) Z = 3.168 0.002
Chloride, Mean ± SD 102.17 ± 7.74 102.68 ± 7.31 100.92 ± 8.60 t = 2.850 0.005
PLT, 109/L, M (Q1, Q3) 114.00 (72.00, 176.00) 121.00 (76.00, 179.00) 105.00 (66.00, 170.00) Z =  − 2.628 0.009
Lactate last, mmol/L, M (Q1, Q3) 1.90 (1.40, 3.00) 1.70 (1.30, 2.30) 3.20 (1.90, 6.40) Z = 12.117  < 0.001
Lactate first, mmol/L, M (Q1, Q3) 2.40 (1.60, 4.00) 2.10 (1.40, 3.40) 3.30 (2.20, 5.90) Z = 8.680  < 0.001
ΔLA, %, M (Q1, Q3) 16.00 (− 22.00, 45.00) 18.00 (− 14.00, 48.00) 2.00 (− 53.00, 39.00) Z =  − 4.095  < 0.001
ICU stay time, days, M (Q1, Q3) 3.82 (2.01, 8.58) 3.60 (2.01, 7.44) 4.72 (2.00, 11.49) Z = 2.402 0.016
SOFA 9.00 (7.00,12.00) 8.00 (6.00,10.00) 12.00 (9.00,15.00) Z = 11.758  < 0.001
CLIF-SOFA 8.00 (6.00,11.00) 7.00 (5.00,10.00) 11.00 (8.00,13.00) Z = 11.402  < 0.001
MELD 18.72 (11.32,27.23) 16.34 (10.10,24.74) 24.89 (17.01,31.89) Z = 8.445  < 0.001
Child–Pugh 9.17 ± 2.44 8.84 ± 2.49 9.98 ± 2.10 t =  − 6.94  < 0.001
CLIF-C ACLF 48.80 ± 8.80 47.29 ± 7.98 51.28 ± 9.52 T =  − 5.10  < 0.001
CLIF-C AD 36.66 ± 1.25 31.54 ± 1.18 32.43 ± 1.48 T =  − 3.71  < 0.001
MELD-Na 25.08 (16.04,33.81) 22.03 (14.31,31.29) 32.64 (24.04,38.65) Z = 9.804  < 0.001
  1. ICU, intensive care unit; MICU, medical intensive care unit; CCU, coronary care unit; CSRU, cardiac surgery care unit; ICU, surgical intensive care unit; TSICU, traumatic surgical intensive care unit; ACLF, acute chronic liver failure; RRT, renal replacement therapy; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; MAP, mean arterial pressure; PaO2, arterial oxygen partial pressure; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; SPO2, pulse oxygen saturation; INR, international normalized ratio; PT, prothrombin time; PLT, platelet count; WBC, white blood cell count; ΔLA, lactate clearance; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; CLIF-SOFA, chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment; MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; CLIF-C ACLF, chronic liver failure consortium acute-on-chronic liver failure score; CLIF-C AD, chronic liver failure consortium-acute decompensation