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Table 2 Pneumatosis intestinalis (n = 167)

From: Multicenter epidemiological survey of pneumatosis intestinalis in Japan

Characteristics n (%)
Symptoms   
 Asymtomatic 70 (41.9)
 Symptomatic 97 (58.1)
Complications   
 Abscense 141 (84.4)
 Presence 26 (15.6)
  Strangulation or bowel necrosis 10 (6.0)
  Bowel obstruction 4 (2.4)
  Massive bleeding 4 (2.4)
  Adynamic ileus 4 (2.4)
  Bowel perforation 3 (1.8)
  Sepsis 1 (0.6)
Segments involved   
 Large bowel only 119 (71.3)
  Right-sided colon only 84 (50.3)
  Left-sided colon only 25 (15.0)
  Right- and left-sided colon 6 (3.6)
  Throughout the large bowel 2 (1.2)
  Rectum only 1 (0.6)
  Left-sided colon and rectum 1 (0.6)
Small bowel only 33 (19.8)
  Ileum only 14 (8.4)
  Jejunum only 11 (6.6)
  Ileum and jejunum 8 (4.8)
Combined 13 (7.8)
  Ileum and right-sided colon 3 (1.8)
  Ileum, right- and left-sided colon 3 (1.8)
  Jejunum, ileum, right- and left-sided colon 3 (1.8)
  Esophagus, stomach, small bowel 2 (1.2)
  Jejunum and right-sided colon 1 (0.6)
  Esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon 1 (0.6)
Diagnostic examination   
 Endoscopy 90 (53.9)
 Computed tomography 85 (50.9)
 Plain abdominal roentgenogram 27 (16.2)
 Barium enema roentgenogram 19 (11.4)
 Endoscopic ultrasonography 6 (3.6)
 Laparotomy 1 (0.6)
Treatment   
 Conservative treatment 117 (70.1)
 Oxygen therapy 35 (21.0)
  Hyperbaric 16 (9.6)
  Conventional 19 (11.4)
 Endoscopic therapy 3 (1.8)
  Puncture with needle 2 (1.2)
  Deaeration 1 (0.6)
 Surgery 12 (7.2)
Outcome of pneumatosis intestinalis   
 Improvement 119 (71.3)
  Disapperance 80 (47.9)
  Reduction 36 (21.6)
  Recurrence 1 (0.6)
  Unknown 2 (1.2)
 No change 40 (24.0)
 Exacerbation 8 (4.8)
Prognosis   
 Survival 159 (95.2)
 Death 8 (4.8)
  Strangulation 4 (2.4)
  Sepsis 2 (1.2)
  Bleeding 1 (0.6)
  Data unavailable 1 (0.6)