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Table 3 Comparisons among patients with AKI progression, regression and fluctuated in-situ

From: Characteristics of acute kidney injury and its impact on outcome in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

Variables Fluctuated in-situ
N = 40
Regression
N = 96
Progression P value
N = 81
Age (years) 55.5 ± 9.1 50.6 ± 12.1 56.4 ± 12.7 0.003
Male-n (%) 28 (70.0) 81 (84.4) 60 (74.1) 0.107
Death-n (%) 16 (40.0) 32 (33.3) 72 (88.9)  < 0.001
MAP (mmHg) 90.6 ± 11.9 86.1 ± 17.3 90.8 ± 12.7 0.074
Heart rate (bpm) 88.4 ± 15.9 89.0 ± 16.1 84.5 ± 12.6 0.115
Baseline Cr (μmol/L) 78.7 ± 39.3 78.4 ± 33.0 95.8 ± 65.4 0.041
Baseline eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 110.3 ± 53.5 111.2 ± 47.6 107.1 ± 77.3 0.903
Peak Cr (μmol/L) 147.5 ± 82.1 173.6 ± 112.1 295.3 ± 154.1  < 0.001
CA-AKI/HA-AKI-n 11/29 28/68 17/64 0.447
Initial ICA-AKI stage-n
Stage 1/2/3 28/10/2 58/23/15 46/25/10 0.383
Peak ICA-AKI stage-n
Stage 1/2/3 26/12/2 49/29/18 9/19/53  < 0.001
Type of AKI-n(%)      < 0.001
ATN 2 (5.0) 15 (15.6) 56 (32.1)  
PRA 22 (55.0) 77 (80.2) 8 (9.9)  
HRS 16 (40.0) 15 (15.6) 47 (58.0)  
Etiology of liver disease- n (%)      < 0.001
Hepatitis B 19 (47.5) 35 (36.5) 48 (59.3)  
Alcohol 10 (25.0) 50 (52.1) 51 (25.9)  
Other causes 11 (27.5) 11 (11.5) 12 (14.8)  
Complications during hospitalization-n (%)
Ascites 26 (65.0) 70 (72.9) 58 (71.6) 0.643
HE 15 (35.0) 19 (19.8) 33 (40.7) 0.008
GI bleeding 9 (22.5) 22 (22.9) 19 (23.5) 0.992
Bacterial infection 30 (75.0) 74 (77.1) 70 (86.4) 0.198
Shock 2 (5.0) 10 (10.4) 13 (18.0) 0.182
Mechanical ventilation 0 (0.0) 3 (3.1) 8 (9.9) 0.034
Parameters at diagnosis of AKI
WBC (× 109/L) 9.6 ± 6.6 11.2 ± 7.1 11.9 ± 7.0 0.219
PLT (× 109/L) 85.4 ± 66.0 100.4 ± 63.6 89.9 ± 67.4 0.383
ALB (g/L) 29.3 ± 5.1 28.0 ± 4.6 27.5 ± 4.8 0.148
TBIL (μmol/L) 270.9 ± 185.1 242.4 ± 146.9 308.2 ± 168 0.030
INR 2.2 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 2.0 0.005
PT (s) 29.2 ± 13.4 28.0 ± 9.5 31.2 ± 14.7 0.237
BUN (mmol/L) 11.3 ± 5.7 13.9 ± 9.6 16.5 ± 7.7 0.004
sCr (μmol/L) 135.6 ± 77.7 157.3 ± 84.7 183.1 ± 86.9 0.011
Serum Na+ (mmol/L) 132.4 ± 4.8 132.3 ± 6.4 130.1 ± 7.3 0.045
Serum K+ (mmol/L) 4.1 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 10.3 0.316
CTP 11.0 ± 1.5 11.8 ± 1.4 12.3 ± 1.7  < 0.001
MELD 24.7 ± 7.0 25.7 ± 7.9 31.5 ± 8.4  < 0.001
MELD-Na 30.3 ± 10.8 32.0 ± 11.7 40.7 ± 13.6  < 0.001
  1. Bold represented P < 0.05 with statistically significant