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Table 1 Logistic regression for characteristics to develop initial lung metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer (diagnosed 2010–2016)

From: Homogeneous and heterogeneous risk and prognostic factors for lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients

Subject characteristics Patients’ No. of CRC (2010–2016)
(N = 203,138)
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisa
LM Entire cohort % OR [95% CI] P value OR [95% CI] P value
Age(years)        
 ≤ 50 1587 31,717 5.0 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
51–60 2517 46,551 5.4 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 0.013 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 0.007
61–70 2828 51,891 5.6 1.09 (1.03–1.17) 0.005 1.24 (1.16–1.34) < 0.001
71–80 2088 40,878 5.1 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 0.525 1.34 (1.24–1.45) < 0.001
81–90 1319 27,329 4.8 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 0.321 1.24 (1.14–1.36) < 0.001
 ≥ 91 259 4772 5.4 1.09 (0.95–1.25) 0.213 1.13 (0.96–1.32) 0.132
Sex        
Female 4855 97,411 5.0 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Male 5743 105,727 5.4 1.10 (1.05–1.14) < 0.001 0.93 (0.84–1.03) 0.142
Race        
White 7795 155,877 5.0 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Black 1702 25,423 6.7 1.36 (1.29–1.44) < 0.001 1.12 (1.05–1.19) 0.001
Othersb 1078 19,755 5.5 1.10 (1.03–1.17) 0.006 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.022
Unknown 23 2083 1.1 0.21 (0.14–0.32) < 0.001 0.33 (0.21–0.50) < 0.001
Marital status        
Unmarriedc 5136 85,861 6.0 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Married 4884 104,171 4.7 0.77 (0.74–0.80) < 0.001 0.91 (0.87–0.95) < 0.001
Unknown 578 13,106 4.4 0.73 (0.66–0.79) < 0.001 0.93 (0.84–1.03) 0.139
Insurance status        
Insured 8087 168,577 4.8 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Uninsured 589 6818 8.6 1.48 (1.40–1.56) < 0.001 1.11 (1.05–1.18) 0.001
Any Medic aid 1922 27,743 6.9 1.88 (1.72–2.05) < 0.001 1.35 (1.22–1.50) < 0.001
Site        
Right colon 3107 81,903 3.8 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Left colon 3568 67,565 5.3 1.41 (1.35–1.49) < 0.001 1.23 (1.21–1.35) < 0.001
Rectum 2898 47,660 6.1 1.64 (1.56–1.73) < 0.001 1.96 (1.84–2.08) < 0.001
Unknown 1025 6010 17.1 5.22 (4.83–5.63) < 0.001 1.32 (1.20–1.45) < 0.001
Histological grade        
Grade I 440 20,942 2.1 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Grade II 4796 119,971 4.0 1.94 (1.76–2.14) < 0.001 1.35 (1.21–1.50) < 0.001
Grade III 1377 26,680 5.2 2.54 (2.27–2.83) < 0.001 1.25 (1.10–1.40) < 0.001
Grade IV 224 5430 4.1 2.01 (1.70–2.36) < 0.001 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 0.229
Unknown 3761 30,115 12.5 6.65 (6.01–7.35) < 0.001 1.87 (1.67–2.09) < 0.001
Lymphatic metastasis        
N0 3631 118,929 3.1 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
N1 3435 49,501 6.9 2.37 (2.26–2.48) < 0.001 1.74 (1.64–1.85) < 0.001
N2 1609 25,083 6.4 2.18 (2.05–2.31) < 0.001 1.61 (1.49–1.74) < 0.001
Unknown 1923 9625 20.0 7.93 (7.47–8.42) < 0.001 1.58 (1.47–1.70) < 0.001
T stage        
T1 1121 37,387 3.0 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
T2 175 22,697 0.8 0.25 (0.21–0.30) < 0.001 0.36 (0.30–0.42) < 0.001
T3 2627 84,747 3.1 1.04 (0.96–1.11) 0.343 0.74 (0.68–0.80) < 0.001
T4 2218 30,766 7.2 2.51 (2.34–2.71) < 0.001 1.16 (1.07–1.27) 0.001
Unknown 4457 27,541 16.2 6.25 (5.84–6.68) < 0.001 1.80 (1.66–1.94) < 0.001
CEA        
Negative 899 57,688 1.6 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Positive 6325 53,812 11.8 8.41 (7.84–9.03) < 0.001 2.40 (2.22–2.59) < 0.001
Unknown 3374 91,638 3.7 2.42 (2.24–2.60) < 0.001 1.39 (1.28–1.51) < 0.001
Liver metastasis        
No 2863 172,420 1.7 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Yes 7608 30,258 25.1 19.89 (19.02–20.81) < 0.001 9.13 (8.66–9.62) < 0.001
Unknown 127 460 27.6 22.59 (18.35–27.8) < 0.001 4.95 (3.83–6.40) < 0.001
Bone metastasis        
No 9158 199,953 4.6 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Yes 1089 2454 44.4 16.62 (15.31–18.05) < 0.001 3.53 (3.21–3.88) < 0.001
Unknown 351 731 48.0 19.24 (16.62–22.28) < 0.001 2.32 (1.80–2.99) < 0.001
Brain metastasis        
No 9899 201,765 4.9 1 (Reference) 1.00 1 (Reference) 1.00
Yes 299 566 52.8 21.71 (18.38–25.63) < 0.001 8.53 (6.94–10.48) < 0.001
Unknown 400 807 49.6 19.05 (16.57–21.90) < 0.001 2.45 (1.94–3.10) < 0.001
  1. CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; CRC, colorectal cancer; CI, confidence interval; LM, lung metastasis; NA, not available; OR, odds ratios
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, race, marital status, insurance status, site, histological grade, lymphatic metastasis, T stage, CEA, liver metastasis, bone metastasis, and brain metastasis
  3. bIncludes American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander
  4. cIncludes single, separated, widowed, and divorced