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Table 7 Multilevel binary logistic regression results on the environmental predictors of exposure of children to intestinal parasites in the rural settings of the east Dembiya district, northwest Ethiopia, May 2021

From: Fecal indicator bacteria along multiple environmental exposure pathways (water, food, and soil) and intestinal parasites among children in the rural northwest Ethiopia

Variables Null model Intermediate model Coefficient model Cross-level interaction model
Age of children in months
 24–36 months   1.0 1.0 1.0
 37–48 months   2.16 (1.02, 4.58)* 2.18 (1.01, 4.68)* 2.15 (1.01, 4.58)*
 49–59 months   1.46 (0.69, 3.06) 1.63 (0.76, 3.49) 1.45 (0.69, 3.05)
Mothers or care givers kept finger nails short and clean
 Yes   1.0 1.0 1.0
 No   1.93 (1.04, 3.57)* 1.98 (1.07, 3.66)* 1.99 (1.07, 3.69)*
Children kept finger nails short and clean
 Yes   1.0 1.0 1.0
 No   3.15 (1.75, 5.69)*** 3.20 (1.77, 5.77)*** 3.24 (1.79, 5.85)***
Mouthing of soil contaminated materials
 Yes   2.21 (1.21, 4.02)** 2.31 (1.26, 4.24)** 2.30 (1.26, 4.18)**
 No   1.0 1.0 1.0
Defecation practice of households
 Open field   2.18 (1.18, 4.01)* 2.22 (1.20, 4.10)* 2.31 (1.24, 4.30)**
 Latrine   1.0 1.0 1.0
Animal excreta in the living environment
Yes   1.52 (0.81, 2.83) 1.64 (0.87, 3.11) 1.54 (0.82, 2.88)
 No   1.0 1.0 1.0
Volume of water a family collected per day
  < 20 l/c/d   2.47 (1.18, 5.18)* 2.38 (1.13, 5.01)* 2.52 (1.21, 5.26)*
\(\ge\) 20 l/c/d   1.0 1.0 1.0
E. coli detected in courtyard soil samples
 Yes   2.52 (1.31, 483)** 2.56 (1.34, 4.90)** 2.48 (1.29, 4.75)**
 No   1.0 1.0  
E. coli detected in ready-to-eat food samples
 Yes   3.09 (1.65, 5.79)*** 3.21(1.69, 6.09)*** 3.17 (1.68, 5.98)***
 No   1.0 1.0 1.0
E. coli detected in drinking water samples
 Yes   2.51 (1.31, 4.80)** 1.88 (0.68, 5.22) 5.30 (1.89, 14.85)**
 No   1.0 1.0 1.0
Vectors observed in the food storage areas
 Yes   1.09 (0.60, 1.98) 1.12 (0.62, 2.03) 1.14 (0.62, 2.07)
 No   1.0 1.0 1.0
Drinking water sources (2nd level predictor)
 Protected   1.0 1.0 1.0
 Unprotected   1.81 (0.37, 8.82) 0.70 (0.22, 2.19) 1.26 (0.26, 5.97)
Drinking water source*E. coli detected in water samples at point of use
 Protected*No     1.0
 Unprotected*Yes     3.83 (1.01, 14.46)*
Random effects
Coefficient variance (SE)    0.15 (0.65)  
Community level variance (SE) 2.03 (1.05) 2.35 (1.30) 2.14 (2.24) 2.13 (1.20)
Covariance (SE)    − 0.56 (1.51)  
Log-likelihood 58.31 (p < 0.001) 33.36 (p < 0.001) 37.81 (p < 0.001) 29.33 (p < 0.001)
ICC 0.38 0.42 0.04 0.39
AIC 460.71 392.46 392 390.38
  1. Note: * statistically significant variables at p < 0.05, ** statistically significant variables at p < 0.01, and *** statistically significant variables at p < 0.001