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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants at baseline

From: Helicobacter pylori infection is not an independent risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in China

Variables Full sample (n = 71,633) Matched sample (n = 29,974) a
H. pylori− (n = 46,888) H. pylori + (n = 24,745) P value H. pylori− (n = 14,987) H. pylori + (n = 14,987) P value
Age 44.8 ± 13.3 46.5 ± 12.5  < 0.001 47.3 ± 12.9 46.6 ± 12.2  
Male (%) 57.6 58.6 0.010 58.3 57.5 0.134
BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 ± 3.4 24.1 ± 3.4  < 0.001 24.3 ± 3.3 24.2 ± 3.4 0.043
Year of screening exam (%)    < 0.001    
 2015 20.8 21.7   21.6 12.6  
 2016 24.4 24.2   48.1 27.1  
 2017 19.3 18.7   25.1 23.0  
 2018 19.8 21.3   4.8 24.5  
 2019 18.8 17.3   0.4 12.7  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124.3 ± 19.5 125.9 ± 20.0  < 0.001 127.1 ± 19.8 126.4 ± 20.0  
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.8 ± 11.4 78.9 ± 11.8  < 0.001 79.7 ± 11.5 79.1 ± 11.8  
Hypertension (%) 13.7 15.1  < 0.001 13.5 13.9 0.129
FBG (mM) 5.05 ± 1.27 5.18 ± 1.47  < 0.001 5.11 ± 1.29 5.12 ± 1.29  
HbA1C (%) 5.48 ± 0.75 5.55 ± 0.83  < 0.001 5.50 ± 0.77 5.50 ± 0.77  
Diabetes (%) 4.74 6.14  < 0.001 5.49 5.60 0.565
Total cholesterol (mM) 4.80 ± 0.92 4.86 ± 0.92  < 0.001 4.89 ± 0.91 4.86 ± 0.92  
LDL-C (mM) 2.76 ± 0.77 2.82 ± 0.78  < 0.001 2.22 ± 0.77 2.82 ± 0.77  
HDL-C (mM) 1.43 ± 0.34 1.41 ± 0.34  < 0.001 1.46 ± 0.35 1.41 ± 0.35  
Triglycerides (mM) 1.58 ± 1.39 1.65 ± 1.50  < 0.001 1.65 ± 1.41 1.64 ± 1.44  
Dyslipidemia (%) 24.9 28.0  < 0.001 26.8 26.9 0.887
AST (IU/L) 23.3 (18–25) 23.4 (18–25) 0.011 22.7 (17–25) 23.3 (18–26)  
ALT (IU/L) 26.5 (15–31) 27.0 (15–31)  < 0.001 27.4 (15–32) 27.0 (15–31)  
GGT (IU/L) 30.2 (14–33) 31.0 (15–35)  < 0.001 32.6 (15–36) 30.5 (14–35)  
Scr (μM) 70.5 ± 17.2 71.1 ± 20.1 0.001 69.6 ± 18.6 70.2 ± 17.6  
BUN (mM) 4.88 ± 1.30 4.95 ± 1.37  < 0.001 4.99 ± 1.32 4.94 ± 1.32  
NAFLD (%) 31.3 34.8  < 0.001 34.8 34.6 0.716
  1. Continuous variables were shown as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range), and categorical variables were expressed as counts (percentage)
  2. aMatched sample were selected with propensity score matching analysis (PSM) (Covariate: Age, sex, BMI, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, FBG, HbA1C, Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, Triglycerides, Scr, BUN; Matching tolerance: 0.001)
  3. H. pylori, Helicobacter pylori; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1C, glycated hemoglobin; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; Scr, serum creatinine; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease