Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline characteristics compared between the home-based exercise training and control groups

From: Effect of a 12-week home-based exercise training program on aerobic capacity, muscle mass, liver and spleen stiffness, and quality of life in cirrhotic patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial

Characteristics HoBET (n = 20) Control (n = 20) p-value
Age (years), mean ± SD 55.6 ± 8.9 57.1 ± 6.7 0.56
Male gender, n (%) 15 (75%) 11 (55%) 0.18
Etiology of cirrhosis, n (%)
 Hepatitis B infection 11 (55%) 8 (40%) 0.34
 Hepatitis C infection 7 (35%) 11 (55%) 0.20
 Alcohol 1 (5%) 1 (5%) 1.00
 Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis 1 (5%) 0 (0%) 1.00
Severity of liver disease
 MELD, mean ± SD 7.95 ± 1.5 7.95 ± 1.3 1.00
 CTP score, median (range) 5 (5–5) 5 (5–5) 1.00
History of small EV, n (%) 2 (10%) 4 (20%) 0.66
History of previous EV bleeding, n (%) 1 (5%) 2 (10%) 1.00
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 25.3 ± 2.7 25.2 ± 3.4 0.92
Waist circumference (cm), mean ± SD 91.3 ± 8.0 90 ± 7.4 0.61
%Fat, mean ± SD 24.6 ± 7.0 29.1 ± 9.1 0.09
Muscle mass (kg), mean ± SD 50.8 ± 7.6 44.4 ± 7.5 0.01
Laboratory results, mean ± SD
 Fasting blood sugar (mg/dL) 111.9 ± 25 106.1 ± 35.7 0.56
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) 174.1 ± 22.8 172.4 ± 32.2 0.85
 LDL-C (mg/dL) 101.7 ± 21.4 100.3 ± 32.8 0.88
 Hb (g/dl) 14.6 ± 1.4 13.3 ± 1.7 0.01
 Platelet count (X109/L) 169 ± 80 146 ± 45 0.27
 Albumin (g/dl) 4.4 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.4 0.85
 Total bilirubin (mg/dl), median (range) 0.72 (0.6–0.9) 0.63 (0.4–0.9) 0.21
 ALT (U/L), median (range) 25 (22–49) 27 (20–37) 0.53
 International normalized ratio (INR) 1.1 ± 0.08 1.1 ± 0.09 0.55
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 2.3 0.43
6-min walk test (meters), mean ± SD 479.8 ± 61.1 470.6 ± 80 0.69
Transient elastography, mean ± SD
 Liver stiffness (kPa) 14.0 ± 9.6 16.6 ± 9.2 0.39
 CAP (dB/m) 235.3 ± 44.3 229.3 ± 47.9 0.69
 Spleen stiffness (kPa) 25.8 ± 16.2 33.7 ± 25.9 0.64
Thigh muscle mass, mean ± SD
 Thigh circumference (cm) 49.2 ± 3.4 48.3 ± 4.7 0.49
 Average feather index (cm/m2) 0.82 ± 0.16 0.86 ± 0.26 0.61
 Average compression index (cm/m2) 0.62 ± 0.12 0.67 ± 0.17 0.35
Quality of life, mean ± SD
 Abdominal symptoms domain 5.9 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 1.3 0.17
 Fatigue domain 5.1 ± 1.1 4.7 ± 1.1 0.29
 Systemic symptoms domain 5.8 ± 0.8 5.2 ± 1.2 0.045
 Activity domain 5.8 ± 0.8 5.3 ± 1.2 0.18
 Emotional function domain 5.4 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.3 0.15
 Worry domain 5.8 ± 1.5 5.1 ± 1.4 0.14
 Average CLDQ score 5.6 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 1.1 0.43
  1. A p-value < 0.05 indicates statistical significance
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, BMI body mass index, CAP controlled attenuation parameter, CLDQ chronic liver disease questionnaire, CTP Child-Turcotte-Pugh, EV esophageal varices, Hb hemoglobin, HoBET home-based exercise training, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MELD model for end-stage liver disease