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Table 3 Non-invasive predictors associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)

From: PNPLA3 genotype and fibrosis-4 index predict cardiovascular diseases of Japanese patients with histopathologically-confirmed NAFLD

Factor Category Univariate Multivariate
Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value* Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value*
PNPLA3 rs738409 CG, GG 1    1   
  CC 2.97 (1.35–6.53) 0.007 3.66 (1.61–8.35) 0.002
Chronic kidney disease** Absence 1    1   
  Presence 4.44 (1.69–11.7) 0.002 3.62 (1.18–11.2) 0.025
FIB-4 index  < 2.67 1    1   
   ≥ 2.67 3.14 (1.58–6.23) 0.001 2.73 (1.21–6.14) 0.016
Body mass index  < 25.0 kg/m2 1      
   ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 2.32 (1.16–4.64) 0.017    
Previous or current malignancies, except for liver cancer Absence 1      
  Presence 2.67 (1.11–6.42) 0.029    
Hypertension Absence 1      
  Presence 2.20 (1.18–4.10) 0.013    
  1. *Significance was determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. Variables that were statistically significant on univariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis to identify significant independent factors
  2. **Chronic kidney disease was defined as persistent positive proteinuria and/or eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for more than 3 months. Characteristics of the 444 patients who were confirmed to have no previous or current CVDs at their NAFLD diagnoses were evaluated for the rate of CVD development. During the follow-up period, 43 patients developed CVDs. CVDs included coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta and its branches, disorders of the peripheral vascular system, and stroke.