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Table 3 Risk of COVID-19 Hospitalization Overall and by Subgroups in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease (n = 42,320) and Matched Population Controls (n = 182,147) from February 1 to July 31, 2020

From: Risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality in patients with established chronic liver disease: a nationwide matched cohort study

Group N (%) N events (%) Incidence rate (95% CI) per 1000 PY HR* (95% CI) Adjusted HR** (95% CI)
Liver disease Comparators Liver disease Comparators Liver disease Comparators
Overall 42 320 (100%) 182 147 (100%) 161 (0.38%) 435 (0.24%) 7.7 (6.5–8.9) 4.8 (4.4–5.3) 1.49 (1.24–1.79) 1.36 (1.11–1.66)
Follow-up, months         
 0 to  < 1 42 320 (100%) 182 147 (100%) – (0.00%) 1 (0.00%) 0.1 (0.0–0.2)
 1 to  < 2 42 218 (99.8%) 181 946 (99.9%) 27 (0.06%) 56 (0.03%) 7.7 (4.8–10.6) 3.7 (2.7–4.7) 1.91 (1.20–3.04) 1.42 (0.83–2.43)
 2 to  < 3 42 060 (99.4%) 181 707 (99.8%) 69 (0.16%) 173 (0.10%) 19.7 (15.1–24.4) 11.4 (9.7–13.1) 1.58 (1.19–2.10) 1.61 (1.17–2.22)
 3 to  < 4 41 880 (99.0%) 181 334 (99.6%) 49 (0.12%) 122 (0.07%) 14.1 (10.1–18.0) 8.1 (6.6–9.5) 1.60 (1.15–2.25) 1.56 (1.07–2.26)
 4 to  < 5 41 744 (98.6%) 181 046 (99.4%) 13 (0.03%) 79 (0.04%) 3.7 (1.7–5.8) 5.2 (4.1–6.4) 0.71 (0.39–1.28) 0.45 (0.22–0.92)
 5 to  < 6 41 635 (98.4%) 180 807 (99.3%) 3 (0.01%) 4 (0.00%) 0.9 (0.0–1.9) 0.3 (0.0–0.6) 2.78 (0.60–12.78)
Sex         
 Females 21 591 (51.0%) 93 906 (51.6%) 60 (0.28%) 195 (0.21%) 5.7 (4.2–7.1) 4.2 (3.6–4.8) 1.24 (0.92–1.65) 1.03 (0.74–1.43)Ψ
 Males 20 729 (49.0%) 88 241 (48.4%) 101 (0.49%) 240 (0.27%) 9.9 (8.0–11.9) 5.5 (4.8–6.2) 1.69 (1.34–2.14) 1.64 (1.26–2.15)
Age at index date         
 < 18 years 2 769 (6.5%) 12 877 (7.1%) 2 (0.07%) 5 (0.04%) 1.5 (0.0–3.5) 0.8 (0.1–1.5) 1.93 (0.37–9.98) 2.43 (0.35–16.95)Ψ
 18 to < 40 years 13 574 (32.1%) 61 290 (33.6%) 38 (0.28%) 90 (0.15%) 5.7 (3.9–7.5) 3.0 (2.4–3.6) 1.86 (1.27–2.73) 1.80 (1.18–2.77)
 40 to < 60 years 18 446 (43.6%) 79 416 (43.6%) 85 (0.46%) 206 (0.26%) 9.4 (7.4–11.4) 5.3 (4.5–6.0) 1.72 (1.33–2.23) 1.64 (1.24–2.18)
 ≥ 60 years 7 531 (17.8%) 28 564 (15.7%) 36 (0.48%) 134 (0.47%) 9.9 (6.6–13.1) 9.6 (8.0–11.2) 0.91 (0.62–1.32) 0.69 (0.45–1.07)
Index year         
 1969–1989 2 966 (7.0%) 11 276 (6.2%) 8 (0.27%) 20 (0.18%) 5.5 (1.7–9.3) 3.6 (2.0–5.2) 1.45 (0.63–3.32) 0.98 (0.36–2.69)
 1990–1999 11 722 (27.7%) 47 935 (26.3%) 50 (0.43%) 137 (0.29%) 8.7 (6.3–11.1) 5.8 (4.8–6.8) 1.38 (1.00–1.92) 1.44 (1.02–2.04)
 2000–2009 15 979 (37.8%) 69 263 (38.0%) 56 (0.35%) 165 (0.24%) 7.1 (5.3–9.0) 4.8 (4.1–5.6) 1.35 (0.99–1.84) 1.07 (0.75–1.53)
 2010–2017 11 653 (27.5%) 53 673 (29.5%) 47 (0.40%) 113 (0.21%) 8.2 (5.9–10.6) 4.3 (3.5–5.0) 1.84 (1.31–2.60) 1.63 (1.08–2.45)
Age at start of follow-up         
 < 18 years 508 (1.2%) 2 479 (1.4%) – (0.00%) – (0.00%)
 18 to < 40 years 4 105 (9.7%) 19 274 (10.6%) 7 (0.17%) 7 (0.04%) 3.4 (0.9–6.0) 0.7 (0.2–1.3) 4.67 (1.63–13.36) 11.45 (2.17–60.51)Ψ
 40 to < 60 years 13 567 (32.1%) 62 844 (34.5%) 48 (0.35%) 95 (0.15%) 7.2 (5.1–9.2) 3.1 (2.4–3.7) 2.44 (1.72–3.45) 2.02 (1.34–3.05)
 ≥ 60 years 24 140 (57.0%) 97 550 (53.6%) 106 (0.44%) 333 (0.34%) 9.0 (7.3–10.7) 6.9 (6.2–7.7) 1.21 (0.97–1.51) 1.12 (0.88–1.43)
Country of birth         
 Nordic 36 036 (85.2%) 162 473 (89.2%) 115 (0.32%) 304 (0.19%) 6.5 (5.3–7.7) 3.8 (3.4–4.2) 1.46 (1.17–1.82) 1.36 (1.07–1.72)
 Other 6 284 (14.8%) 19 670 (10.8%) 46 (0.73%) 131 (0.67%) 14.9 (10.6–19.2) 13.5 (11.2–15.8) 1.87 (1.00–3.49) 1.73 (0.83–3.60)
Level of education         
 ≤ 9 years 9 467 (22.4%) 33 283 (18.3%) 50 (0.53%) 119 (0.36%) 10.8 (7.8–13.8) 7.3 (6.0–8.6) 1.73 (1.05–2.87) 1.45 (0.83–2.53)
 10–12 years 20 139 (47.6%) 83 677 (45.9%) 76 (0.38%) 196 (0.23%) 7.7 (6.0–9.4) 4.7 (4.1–5.4) 1.44 (1.05–1.99) 1.74 (1.20–2.51)
 > 12 years 12 567 (29.7%) 64 460 (35.4%) 34 (0.27%) 113 (0.18%) 5.5 (3.6–7.3) 3.5 (2.9–4.2) 1.06 (0.63–1.80) 1.05 (0.58–1.92)
  1. N, number; CI, confidence interval; PY, person-years; HR, hazard ratio
  2. *Conditioned on matching set (age, sex, county, and calendar period)
  3. **Conditioned on matching set and further adjusted for education, Nordic country of birth, and medical comorbidities at index date (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, alcohol use disorder, obesity/dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, cancer, psychiatric disease)
  4. ΨP-interaction values for sex, age at the index date and age at the start of follow-up = 0.06, < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively