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Table 2 Prediction of increased stage of HBV-ACLF, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy with decreased androgen levels

From: Lower testosterone levels predict increasing severity and worse outcomes of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure in males

  HBV-ACLF Ascites Hepatic encephalopathy
Odds ratio (95% CI) P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
1–Ln (TT [ng/dL]) 3.507 (2.285–5.383)  < 0.001 2.962 (1.957–4.482)  < 0.001 3.052 (1.690–5.513)  < 0.001
1–Ln (SHBG [nmol/L]) 8.757 (4.046–18.951)  < 0.001 4.293 (2.118–8.701)  < 0.001 17.010 (5.361–53.975)  < 0.001
1–Ln (FTI [%]) 2.376 (1.469–3.841)  < 0.001 2.374 (1.472–3.829)  < 0.001 1.453 (0.783–2.696) 0.236
SQRT (DHEAS [μg/dL]) 1.042 (0.981–1.106) 0.186 0.971 (0.915–1.031) 0.341 1.172 (1.079–1.273)  < 0.001
SQRT (cortisol [μg/dL]) 1.077 (0.832–1.393) 0.573 1.028 (0.804–1.313) 0.827 1.248 (0.924–1.686) 0.148
SQRT (AND [ng/mL]) 2.089 (1.139–3.830) 0.017 1.390 (0.773–2.501) 0.272 3.296 (1.473–7.375) 0.004
  1. Model was adjusted for age and body mass index
  2. Subjects were categorized according to stage of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (early stage, middle stage, or end stage), ascites (none, mild ascites, or severe ascites), and hepatic encephalopathy (none, grade I/II, or grade III/IV)
  3. HBV-ACLF Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure, TT total testosterone, SHBG sex-hormone-binding globulin, FTI free testosterone index, SQRT Square Root, DHEAS dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, AND androstenedione