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Table 2 Most frequent pathogens.

From: Antimicrobial resistance in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and bacterial infections in a tertiary center in Northern Germany

Pathogen No. (%) of pathogens
Total Ascites Blood Urine
(n = 261) (n = 90) (n = 63) (n = 108)
Gram-negative organisms
All 67 (25.7) 21 (23.3) 17 (27.0) 29 (26.9)
 Escherichia coli 35 (13.4) 13 (14.4) 6 (9.5) 16 (14.8)
 Klebsiella pneumoniae 14 (5.4) 4 (4.4) 5 (7.9) 5 (4.6)
 Other 18 (6.9) 4 (4.4) 6 (9.5) 8 (7.4)
Gram-positive organisms
 All 141 (54.0) 65 (72.2) 42 (66.7) 34 (31.5)
 Staphylococcus aureus 28 (10.7) 14 (15.6) 11 (17.5) 3 (2.8)
 Enterococcus faecalis 27 (10.3) 6 (6.7) 4 (6.3) 17 (15.7)
 Enterococcus faecium 23 (8.8) 9 (10.0) 6 (9.5) 8 (7.4)
 Staphylococcus epidermidis 23 (8.8) 7 (7.8) 14 (22.2) 2 (1.9)
 Staphylococcus haemolyticus 10 (3.8) 8 (8.9) 2 (3.2) 0 (0.0)
 Other 30 (11.5) 21 (23.3) 5 (7.9) 4 (3.7)
Fungi
 All 42 (16.1) 4 (4.4) 4 (6.3) 34 (31.5)
 Candida albicans 21 (8.0) 2 (2.2) 2 (3.2) 17 (15.7)
 Other 21 (8.0) 2 (2.2) 2 (3.2) 17 (15.7)
 Other 11 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (10.2)
Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR-bacteria)
 All 60 (23.0) 22 (24.4) 14 (22.2) 24 (22.2)
 Multiresistant gram-negative germ (3MRGN) 6 (2.3) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.6) 4 (3.7)
 Oxacillin-/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA/MRSA) 5 (1.9) 2 (2.2) 2 (3.2) 1 (0.9)
 Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus 2 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.9)
 Linezolid-resistant Enterococcus 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9)