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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of five groups

From: Waist-to-height ratio and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults

  WHtR quintile P-trend
Q1(≥ 0.28, ≤ 0.42) Q2(> 0.42, ≤ 0.45) Q3(> 0.45 ≤ 0.47) Q4(> 0.47, ≤ 0.50) Q5 (> 0.50, ≤ 0.79)
No. of participants 2850 2849 2851 2848 2853  
Age 39 (35–45) 40 (36–47) 42 (37–49) 44 (38–52) 46.00 (40–54)  < 0.01
Sex (male) 962 (33.75%) 1313 (46.09%) 1624 (56.96%) 1792 (62.92%) 1720 (60.29%)  < 0.01
NAFLD 12 (0.42%) 97 (3.40%) 312 (10.94%) 731 (25.67%) 1355 (47.49%)  < 0.01
Habit of exercise 522 (18.32%) 555 (19.48%) 511 (17.92%) 480 (16.85%) 402 (14.09%)  < 0.01
BMI (kg/m2) 18.76 ± 1.47 20.47 ± 1.46 21.77 ± 1.60 23.27 ± 1.76 26.05 ± 2.90  < 0.01
Height (cm) 164.03 ± 8.31 164.69 ± 8.51 165.50 ± 8.46 165.70 ± 8.38 164.07 ± 8.61 0.03
Weight (kg) 49.7 (45.4–55.5) 55.2 (49.4–61.6) 60.00 (53.2–66.4) 64.40 (56.9–71.1) 69.60 (61.8–78.4)  < 0.01
WC (cm) 65.28 ± 4.28 71.26 ± 3.97 75.91 ± 4.06 80.53 ± 4.33 87.93 ± 6.68  < 0.01
ALT (IU/L) 14 (11–18) 15 (12–19) 17.00 (12–22) 18 (14–25) 22 (16–32)  < 0.01
AST (IU/L) 16 (13–19) 16 (13–20) 17.00 (14–20) 18 (14–21) 19 (16–24)  < 0.01
GGT (IU/L) 12.00 (10–15) 13 (10–17) 15 (11–21) 17 (12–24) 20 (14–29)  < 0.01
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.67 ± 0.40 1.56 ± 0.38 1.45 ± 0.39 1.35 ± 0.37 1.27 ± 0.34  < 0.01
TC (mmol/L) 4.85 ± 0.82 4.95 ± 0.81 5.12 ± 0.84 5.24 ± 0.86 5.45 ± 0.88  < 0.01
TG (mmol/L) 0.53 (0.38–0.71) 0.60 (0.43–0.86) 0.73 (0.50–1.05) 0.88 (0.61–1.32) 1.06 (0.71–1.55)  < 0.01
HbA1c (%) 5.10 (4.90–5.30) 5.10 (4.90–5.40) 5.15 (5.00–5.40) 5.20 (5.00–5.40) 5.25 (5.10–5.50)  < 0.01
FPG (mmol/L) 4.97 ± 0.40 5.05 ± 0.39 5.17 ± 0.39 5.24 ± 0.40 5.32 ± 0.38  < 0.01
SBP (mmHg) 106.16 ± 12.56) 109.57 ± 12.55 113.72 ± 13.49 117.05 ± 13.64 123.16 ± 15.52  < 0.01
DBP (mmHg) 65.89 ± 8.59 67.91 ± 8.91 70.94 ± 9.64 73.45 ± 9.88 77.41 ± 10.63  < 0.01
Smoking status        < 0.01
 Non 2081 (73.02%) 1848 (64.86%) 1681 (58.96%) 1530 (53.72%) 1606 (56.29%)  
 Former 298 (10.46%) 444 (15.58%) 558 (19.57%) 658 (23.10%) 601 (21.07%)  
 Current 471 (16.53%) 557 (19.55%) 612 (21.47%) 660 (23.17%) 646 (22.64%)  
Drinking status        < 0.01
 Non or small (< 40 g/w) 2522 (88.49%) 2399 (84.20%) 2285 (80.15%) 2256 (79.21%) 2343 (82.12%  
 Light (40–139 g/w) 264 (9.26%) 338 (11.86%) 404 (14.17%) 402 (14.12%) 350 (12.27%)  
 Moderate (140–209 g/w) 64 (2.25%) 112 (3.93%) 162 (5.68%) 190 (6.67%) 160 (5.61%)  
  1. Values were expressed as mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, FPG fasting plasma glucose, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure