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Table 2 Hazard ratios of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with sleep disorders and covariates

From: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with sleep disorders: a Nationwide study of Taiwan

CharacteristicsNEventPerson-yearIncidence Rate (/10,000 person-year)Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Univariatep-valueMultivariateap-value
Sleep disorders
 No33,045206333,1216.2Reference Reference 
 Yes33,045441314,62714.02.26 (1.92–2.67)< 0.0011.78 (1.46–2.16)< 0.001
Sex
 Women33,939325337,2799.6Reference Reference 
 Men32,151322310,47010.41.08 (0.92–1.26)0.351.31 (1.12–1.54)< 0.001
Age (year)
 20–3925,278166260,6476.4Reference Reference 
 40–5924,088337245,20413.72.16 (1.79–2.60)< 0.0011.49 (1.21–1.82)< 0.001
  ≥ 6016,724144141,89810.21.59 (1.27–1.99)< 0.0010.86 (0.66–1.13)0.28
Comorbidities
 Diabetes
  No59,745556592,8279.4Reference Reference 
  Yes63459154,92216.61.77 (1.41–2.20)< 0.0011.04 (0.82–1.33)0.73
 Dyslipidemia
  No55,165411544,0667.6Reference Reference 
  Yes10,925236103,68322.83.01 (2.56–3.53)< 0.0012.51 (2.08–3.04)< 0.001
 Hypertension
  No47,383407479,1238.5Reference Reference 
  Yes18,707240168,62514.21.68 (1.43–1.97)< 0.0011.02 (0.84–1.25)0.83
 Ischemic Heart Disease
  No56,255529560,8929.4Reference Reference 
  Yes983511886,85613.61.44 (1.18–1.76)< 0.0010.86 (0.68–1.08)0.19
 Depression
  No61,761574606,7999.5Reference Reference 
  Yes43297340,95017.81.88 (1.47–2.40)< 0.0011.23 (0.94–1.62)0.14
 Anxiety
  No52,100437514,0268.5Reference Reference 
  Yes13,990210133,72215.71.84 (1.56–2.17)< 0.0011.16 (0.95–1.42)0.15
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age (categorical), diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, depression, anxiety, and ischemic heart disease in Cox proportional hazards regressions