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Table 2 Cox model measured hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of HCC occurrence associated with and without aspirin use and covariates among HCV carriers

From: Aspirin decreases hepatocellular carcinoma risk in hepatitis C virus carriers: a nationwide cohort study

CharacteristicsEvent no.CrudeAdjusted
(n = 278)HR(95% CI)p valueHR(95% CI)p value
Aspirin
 No1471reference 1reference 
 Yes1310.73(0.58–0.93)0.010.56(0.43–0.72)< 0.001
Gender
 Female1231reference 1reference 
 Male1551.55(1.23–1.97)< 0.0011.71(1.35–2.18)< 0.001
Age, years
  < 4021reference 1reference 
 40–59585.83(1.42–23.87)0.015.42(1.32–22.25)0.02
 60–7919215.63(3.88–63.02)< 0.00113.45(3.31–54.59)< 0.001
  ≥ 802614.79(3.5–62.56)< 0.00112.24(2.87–52.18)< 0.001
Baseline comorbidity
 Hypertension
  No701reference 1reference 
  Yes2081.11(0.85–1.46)0.451.33(0.99–1.79)0.06
 Diabetes mellitus
  No1691reference 1reference 
  Yes1090.84(0.66–1.06)0.150.81(0.63–1.05)0.11
 Moderate or severe liver disease
  No2751reference 1reference 
  Yes30.77(0.25–2.39)0.650.83(0.26–2.59)0.75
 Myocardial infarction
  No2691reference 1reference 
  Yes90.53(0.27–1.03)0.060.59(0.3–1.15)0.12
 Congestive heart failure
  No2301reference 1reference 
  Yes480.84(0.61–1.15)0.270.87(0.63–1.2)0.39
 Ischemic stroke
  No1261reference 1reference 
  Yes1520.86(0.68–1.09)0.210.83(0.64–1.07)0.15
Drugs
 Anti-hypertensive agents
  No751reference 1reference 
  Yes2031.92(1.47–2.5)< 0.0011.94(1.45–2.6)< 0.001
 Hypoglycemic agents
  No2651reference 1reference 
  Yes130.88(0.51–1.54)0.670.85(0.48–1.48)0.56
 Coumadin and heparin
  No2711reference 1reference 
  Yes70.61(0.29–1.28)0.190.52(0.24–1.11)0.09
 Other antithrombotic agents
  No2321reference 1reference 
  Yes461.18(0.86–1.62)0.301.06(0.76–1.48)0.72
 NSAIDs
  No1341reference 1reference 
  Yes1440.83(0.66–1.05)0.130.83(0.65–1.05)0.12
  1. Abbreviations: HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, NSAIDs Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. Adjusted HR: adjusted for gender, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, moderate or severe liver disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, ischemic stroke, anti-hypertension agents, hypoglycemic agents, coumadin and heparin, other antithrombotic agents and NSAIDs in Cox proportional hazards regression