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Table 1 Prognostic factors for overall survival identified by univariate and multivariate analyses (n = 139)

From: Impact of low skeletal muscle mass index and perioperative blood transfusion on the prognosis for HCC following curative resection

     Univariate Multivariate
Variables n (%) 3-year survival 5-year survival P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Male sex 110 (79%) 65.4% 56.7% 0.258    
Female sex 29 (21%) 88.5% 68.5%     
Age (years)
  ≤ 80 109 (78%) 74.1% 66.8% 0.002 1.979 1.050–3.732 0.035
  > 80 30 (22%) 54.1% 33.7%     
BMI (kg/m2)
  > 25 34 (25%) 74.4% 63.0% 0.441    
  ≤ 25 105 (75%) 68.7% 58.1%     
ALBI
 grade III 30 (22%) 64.2% 55.0% 0.677    
  < grade III 109 (78%) 71.4% 59.6%     
HBV
(+) 27 (19%) 78.3% 78.3% 0.027 1.681 1.037–2.726 0.035
(−) 112 (81%) 67.9% 52.7%     
HCV
 (+) 70 (50%) 71.5% 59.4% 0.668    
 (−) 69 (50%) 68.0% 58.8%     
DM
 (+) 29 (21%) 75.3% 58.6% 0.582    
 (−) 110 (79%) 68.6% 58.6%     
NLR
  ≥ 4 13 (9%) 52.6% 52.6% 0.257    
  < 4 126 (91%) 71.3% 60.0%     
PLT (×104/μL)
 normal (13–35) 97 (70%) 73.4% 60.7% 0.582    
 abnormal 42 (30%) 63.1% 55.4%     
Hb (g/dL)
 normal (13.5–15.8) 95 (68%) 74.2% 63.7% 0.094    
 abnormal 44 (32%) 61.2% 50.1%     
PT (%)
 normal (70–130) 125 (90%) 72.3% 60.4% 0.172    
 abnormal 14 (10%) 46.2% 46.2%     
AST (U/L)
 normal (13–33) 71 (51%) 78.6% 59.9% 0.086    
 abnormal 68 (49%) 61.1% 56.5%     
ALT (U/L)
 normal (8–42) 100 (72%) 73.2% 59.7% 0.298    
 abnormal 39 (28%) 61.8% 57.0%     
CHE (g/dL)
 normal (229–521) 77 (55%) 74.6% 64.0% 0.110    
 abnormal 62 (45%) 63.6% 52.6%     
Alb (g/dL)
 normal (4.0–5.0) 115 (83%) 72.2% 60.3% 0.165    
 abnormal 24 (17%) 58.4% 51.9%     
T-chol (mg/dL)
 normal (128–219) 118 (85%) 71.7% 59.1% 0.732    
 abnormal 20 (14%) 66.9% 66.9%     
PIVKA-II (mAU/mL)
 normal (< 40) 62 (45%) 81.0% 74.7% 0.009 1.852 0.940–3.649 0.075
 abnormal 77 (55%) 60.8% 45.7%     
AFP (ng/mL)
 normal (> 10) 68 (49%) 73.8% 66.9% 0.126    
 abnormal 68 (49%) 66.2% 51.4%     
Tumor number
 solitary 113 (81%) 70.6% 65.5% 0.167    
 multiple 26 (19%) 67.9% 37.0%     
Tumor size
 3 cm < 71 (51%) 68.0% 59.5% 0.185    
  ≤ 3 cm 54 (39%) 78.5% 71.5%     
Poor differentiation 20 (14%) 73.7% 48.4% 0.545    
Others (well, moderately) 119 (86%) 69.2% 61.1%     
IM
(+) 19 (14%) 34.1% 22.7% < 0.001 3.675 1.848–7.308 < 0.001
(−) 120 (86%) 77.1% 66.0%     
Vp
 (+) 26 (19%) 49.6% 42.5% 0.009 1.700 0.940–3.649 0.130
 (−) 113 (81%) 74.6% 62.8%     
Low SMI 86 (62%) 63.6% 52.4% 0.039 2.006 1.012–3.974 0.046
High SMI 53 (38%) 80.9% 70.5%     
Blood transfusion
 (+) 22 (16%) 40.0% 30.0% 0.002 2.012 1.001–4.045 0.050
 (−) 117 (84%) 75.5% 64.3%     
  1. Variables in bold are statistically significant (P < 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, ALBI albumin-bilirubin, HBV hepatitis type B, HCV hepatitis type C, DM diabetes mellitus, NLR neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, PLT platelets, Hb hemoglobin, PT prothrombin time, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, CHE cholinesterase, Alb albumin, T-chol total-cholesterol, PIVKAII protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, AFP α-fetoprotein, IM intrahepatic metastasis, VP portal vain invasion, SMI skeletal muscle mass index