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Table 2 Summary odds Ratio (OR) Estimates [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for Case–Control studies Conducted on the Association Between Helicobacter pylori and Risk of diabetes by Type of diabetes, Continent, Mean of HbA1C, Duration of Diabetes, Method of detection bacteria, NOS score and Age

From: Helicobacter pylori infection as a risk factor for diabetes: a meta-analysis of case-control studies

SubgroupNumber of studiesSummery Odds Ratio (95% CI)Between studiesBetween subgroups
I2PheterogeneityQQPheterogeneity
Type of diabetes
 Diabetes Mellitus111.17 (0.94–1.45)82.5%0.00011.43  
 Type 1 Diabetes151.19 (0.98–1.45)81.6%0.00011.753.590.0001
 Type 2 Diabetes151.43 (1.11–1.85)90.0%0.00012.72  
Continent
 Asian121.41 (1.05–1.88)93.2%0.00012.29  
 American20.45 (0.31–0.66)0.0%0.7284.123.590.001
 African71.32 (1.05–1.66)61.0%0.0182.40  
 European201.26 (1.08–1.47)80.3%0.00012.94  
Mean of HbA1Ca
 6–891.40 (0.92–2.13)95.0%0.0011.55  
 8 <131.41 (1.20–1.64)73.7%0.0014.333.590.0001
Duration of Diabetesa
 0–3 Y71.18 (1.06–1.31)0.0%0.4503.07  
 4–7 Y101.15 (0.95–1.38)69.1%0.0011.453.590.001
 8 < Y91.09 (0.79–1.51)91.0%0.00010.55  
Method of detection bacteria
 Invasive Tests181.07 (0.93–1.23)73.2%0.00011.00  
 Non- Invasive Test231.45 (1.19–1.76)88.5%0.00013.703.590.0001
Agea
 10–30 Y151.30 (1.05–1.62)81.9%0.00012.37  
 30–60 Y181.34 (1.09–1.65)91.3%0.00012.773.590.0001
 60 < Y31.03 (0.68–1.57)76.4%0.0140.15  
NOS Score
 6111.14 (0.85–1.53)87.7%0.00010.86  
 7161.42 (1.10–1.82)89.0%0.00012.72  
 8121.24 (1.00–1.53)81.6%0.00011.963.590.0001
 921.08 (0.95–1.22)35.0%0.2161.14  
  1. Largely diabetes mellitus
  2. All statistical tests were 2-sided
  3. aother studies not reported HbA1C, duration of diabetes,