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Table 2 Reasons for technical failure by ERCP indication

From: Infection control in ERCP using a duodenoscope with a disposable cap (ICECAP): rationale for and design of a randomized controlled trial

Reason(s) for Technical Failure
Inability to locate papilla in patient with normal anatomy
Inability to locate papilla in patient with altered anatomy, including:
 • duodenal or peri-ampullary diverticulum
 • Billroth II surgery
 • Roux-en-Y surgery
Inability to achieve an en-face view of the papilla of interest due to a luminal stricture
Inability to cannulate duct of interest
Inability to perform sphincterotomy when necessary
Inability to clear duct of interest
Inability to place stent proximal to area of interest
Inability to remove or exchange stent
Inability to achieve hemostasis endoscopically
Inability to successfully load, exchange or remove devices necessary for the completion of the procedure
Inability to safely complete procedure due to issues with sedationa
  1. aIf this is the only reason for technical failure, the patient will be excluded from final analysis