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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study subjects classified by CE results and specific treatments

From: Re-bleeding and its predictors after capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in long-term follow-up

CharacteristicsOverallPositive CENegative CE (N = 77)P-value
Without treatment (N = 21)With treatment (N = 35)
Male64 (48.1)11 (52.4)14 (40.0)39 (50.6)0.529
Age in years, mean (SD)65.4 (13.8)66.8 (17)68.5 (15.5)63.9 (13.3)0.388
Co-morbidity and underlying diseases
 History of previous overt GI bleeding58 (43.6)12 (57.1)17 (48.6)29 (37.7)0.221
 Ischemic heart disease35 (26.3)7 (33.3)10 (28.6)18 (23.4)0.616
 Aortic stenosis6 (4.5)0 (0)3 (8.6)3 (3.9)0.425
 Hypertension65 (48.9)11 (52.4)19 (54.3)35 (45.5)0.646
 Diabetes mellitus38 (28.6)4 (19.0)11 (31.4)23 (29.9)0.566
 Cirrhosis18 (13.5)5 (23.8)4 (11.4)9 (11.7)0.331
 Chronic hepatitis (HBV, HCV)8 (6)1 (4.8)2 (5.7)5 (6.5)1.000
 Chronic kidney disease26 (19.5)1 (4.8)11 (31.4)14 (18.2)0.056
 Thrombocytopenia8 (6.0)2 (9.5)1 (2.9)5 (6.5)0.604
Mode of bleeding (Overt)81 (60.9)15 (71.4)26 (74.3)40 (51.9)0.045
 Melena41 (30.8)8 (38.1)14 (40.0)19 (24.7)0.195
 Hematochezia40 (30.1)7 (33.3)12 (34.3)21 (27.3)0.709
Mode of bleeding (Occult)52 (39.1)6 (28.6)9 (25.7)37 (48.1)0.045
Hemodynamic instability16 (12.0)5 (23.8)3 (8.6)8 (10.4)0.232
Medications used
 Aspirin17 (12.8)3 (14.3)3 (8.6)11 (14.3)0.761
 Dual antiplatelet therapy14 (10.5)1 (4.8)5 (14.3)8 (10.4)0.577
 NSAIDs15 (11.3)2 (9.5)3 (8.6)10 (13.0)0.927
 Anticoagulants7 (5.3)2 (9.5)3 (8.6)2 (2.6)0.207
Lowest Hb level at initial bleeding (g/dL), mean (SD)7.3 (2.0)7.2 (2.3)6.5 (1.7)7.7 (1.9)0.018
Drop in Hb level, mean (SD)3.7 (1.8)4 (1.7)4 (1.7)3.4 (1.8)0.214
Blood transfusion ≥3 units57 (42.9)8 (38.1)24 (68.6)25 (32.5)0.001
Time to CE after bleeding in day, median (IQR)11.0 (6–30)9.0 (6–16)9.0 (3.5–17.5)16.0 (6–48)0.025
Complete small bowel visualization122 (91.7)21 (100)33 (94.3)68 (88.3)0.247
Follow up duration in month, median (IQR)26.0 (14.1–48.7)34.5 (21.5–44.6)24.3 (13.3–46.1)26.0 (14.1–48.7)0.580
  1. Data are presented as number (percentage) unless indicated otherwise
  2. CE capsule endoscopy, SD standard deviation, GI gastrointestinal, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Hb hemoglobin, IQR interquartile range