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Table 2 The time-trend of dysphagia-free period with RBES in the model of HLM

From: The role of endoscopic dilation and stents in refractory benign esophageal strictures: a retrospective analysis

Fixed effects   Parameter (95% CI) P
Times Intercept (d) 72.7 (61.8–83.6) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 12.7 (8.7–16.7) <0.001
Patient characteristics
Sex
 Female–reference category Intercept (d) 75.1 (54.3–95.9) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 10.5 (2.3–18.7) 0.014
 Male Intercept (d) −3.2 (−27.8–21.4) 0.802
Time-trend (d/time) 6.1 (−4.0–16.2) 0.236
Age
  Intercept (d) 83.3 (46.4–120.2) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 23.6 (8.6–38.6) <0.001
Intercept (d) −0.17 (−0.8–0.4) 0.557
Time-trend (d/time) −0.17 (− 0.4–0.1) 0.193
Stricture characteristics
Etiology
 ESD/ESTD–reference category Intercept (d) 57.6 (35.6–79.6) < 0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 14.7 (8.6–20.8) 0.001
 Achalasia of cardia Intercept (d) 154.2 (97.5–210.9) < 0.001
Time-trend (d/time) −0.54 (−21.9–20.8) 0.971
 Surgery Intercept (d) 21.4 (−4.4–47.2) 0.046
Time-trend (d/time) 9.01 (−6.7–24.7) 0.154
 Caustic Intercept (d) −1.19 (−21.0–18.6) 0.931
Time-trend (d/time) −4.50 (−16.6–7.6) 0.575
Location
  Intercept (d) 32.8 (7.1–58.5) 0.015
Time-trend (d/time) 5.53 (−4.3–15.3) 0.273
Intercept (d) 1.75 (0.7–2.8) 0.002
Time-trend (d/time) 0.36 (−0.1–0.8) 0.101
Length
 <2 cm-reference category Intercept (d) 87.7 (71.7–103.7) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 17.6 (9.4–25.8) <0.001
 ≥2 cm Intercept (d) −26.8 (−48- -5.6) 0.015
Time-trend (d/time) −6.32 (−16.1–3.5) 0.212
Number
 One-reference category Intercept (d) 79.9 (67.2–92.6) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 14.9 (9.8–20.0) <0.001
 Two or more Intercept (d) −24.8 (−48- -1.6) 0.040
Time-trend (d/time) −6.57 (−14.8–1.7) 0.123
Therapy characteristics
Initial dysphagia-free period
  Intercept (d) 52.3 (36.3–68.3) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 17.6 (10.0–25.2) <0.001
Intercept (d) 0.46 (0.2–0.7) 0.010
Time-trend (d/time) −0.12 (−0.3–0.1) 0.229
Therapy
 Dilation + Stents–reference category Intercept (d) 74.9 (61.5–88.3) <0.001
Time-trend (d/time) 17.4 (11.1–23.7) <0.001
 Stents Intercept (d) −6.6 (−30.1–16.9) 0.583
Time-trend (d/time) −7.6 (−16.6–1.4) 0.103
  1. RBES Refractory benign esophageal strictures
  2. CI Confidence interval
  3. HLM Hierarchical linear Model