Skip to main content

Table 2 Mean difference in absolute liver attenuation (Hounsfield units [HU]) for variables of interest, overall and by HIV statusa

From: Comparison of the prevalence, severity, and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in HIV-infected and uninfected people

Variable Overall (n = 268) HIV+ (n = 171) HIV-(n = 97)
Mean difference (HU) Mean difference (HU) Mean difference (HU)
Crude (95% CI) Adjusted (95% CI) Crude (95% CI) Adjusted (95% CI) Crude (95% CI) Adjusted (95% CI)
HIV 5.68 (2.93, 8.43) 5.97 (3.21, 8.73)
Race/ethnicity
 White ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Black − 1.41 (−5.43, 2.60) 0.06 (− 3.99, 4.11) − 1.24 (− 6.06, 3.57) -0.07 (−5.14, 5.28) 0.18 (− 6.85, 7.20) -0.38 (−7.47, 6.71)
 Hispanic 3.21 (−3.81,10.22) 2.43 (− 4.32, 9.17) 2.91 (−5.15, 10.98) 3.58 (− 4.62, 11.78) 2.30 (− 11.51, 16.10) −2.03 (− 15.91, 11.85)
 Other 0.56 (−10.07, 11.19) 2.16 (−7.88, 12.21) 0.42 (− 13.25, 14.09) 2.19 (−11.62, 16.00) 2.82 (−13.42, 19.06) 0.03 (− 15.27, 15.33)
Obese BMI −4.59 (−7.79, −1.39) −3.00 (−6.17, 0.18) −2.31 (−6.86, 2.24) −2.24 (− 7.06, 2.57) − 4.80 (−9.18, − 0.43) − 4.31 (−8.69, 0.07)
SAT area (cm2) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) − 0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.003) − 0.02(− 0.03, − 0.007)
VAT area (cm2) −0.03 (−0.04, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.04, 0.008) −0.03 (− 0.06, − 0.008)
Diabetes mellitusb − 2.15 (− 5.58, 1.29) −0.85 (−4.16, 2.47) −2.93 (−7.24, 1.39) −1.69 (− 6.18, 2.81) − 0.72 (− 6.03, 4.59) 1.03 (− 4.02, 6.09)
Hypertensionc − 4.06 (−7.60, −0.53) −1.08 (− 4.63, 2.46) −4.21 (− 8.61, 0.18) − 1.36 (− 6.12, 3.39) −3.52 (− 9.08, 2.03) −1.24 (− 7.11, 4.64)
Triglycerides − 0.005 (−0.01, 0.005) −0.006 (−0.02, 0.003) − 0.008 (− 0.02, 0.003) −0.008 (− 0.02, 0.004) − 0.005 (−0.02, 0.01) −0.001 (− 0.02, 0.01)
Alcohol used
 Not current ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Non-hazardous 4.67 (0.64, 8.69) 3.13 (−0.89, 7.14) 3.16 (−1.66, 7.98) 1.08 (−4.13, 6.28) 6.96 (0.04, 13.89) 5.51 (−1.27, 12.29)
 Hazardous/at risk 7.64 (2.41,12.87) 5.76 (0.62, 10.91) 7.76 (0.97, 14.54) 4.32 (−2.88, 11.51) 8.99 (1.30, 16.68) 6.00 (−1.61, 13.62)
Abuse/dependence 2.18 (−0.93, 5.30) 1.95 (−1.07, 4.99) 1.58 (−2.38, 5.55) 0.99 (−3.14, 5.13) 4.65 (−0.11, 9.41) 2.68 (−2.15, 7.51)
Nadir CD4, cells/mm3 −0.003 (−0.01, 0.007)
Current CD4, cells/mm3 −0.0006 (−0.07, 0.006)
HIV viremia, log10 0.09 (−1.87, 2.06) −0.12 (−2.13, 1.89)
HCV infection −2.91 (− 5.61, −0.20) −0.97 (−3.63, 2.24) −4.83 (− 8.19, − 1.47) −3.11 (−7.10, 0.88) −0.43 (− 4.65, 3.79) 1.66 (−2.85, 6.16)
FIB-4
 < 1.45 ref ref ref ref ref ref
 1.45–3.25 −0.56 (−3.48, 2.35) −0.71 (−3.63, 2.20) −2.40 (−5.98, 1.19) −1.09 (−4.95, 2.76) 0.95 (−3.55, 5.45) 0.24 (−4.56, 5.04)
 > 3.25 −9.73 (−14.44, −5.01) −9.43 (− 14.15, − 4.71) −8.49 (− 13.93, − 3.04) − 6.07 (− 11.96, − 0.18) −17.64 (− 26.60, − 8.69) −18.22 (− 27.64, − 8.81)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FIB-4 Fibrosis-4 Index for Liver Fibrosis, HCV hepatitis C virus, SAT subcutaneous adipose tissue area, VAT visceral adipose tissue area
  2. aAbsolute liver attenuation (in HU) has a linear, inverse association with severity of hepatic steatosis by pathology (i.e., higher HU indicates less hepatic steatosis)
  3. bDiabetes defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis, anti-diabetic medication use, or random glucose > 200 mg/dL
  4. cHypertension defined by blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or use of anti-hypertensive medication
  5. dAlcohol use determined by responses to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire and alcohol dependence/abuse diagnoses