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Table 3 Laboratory data of enrolled GS subjects during and in between the jaundice episodes in comparison to control subjects

From: The frequency, clinical course, and health related quality of life in adults with Gilbert’s syndrome: a longitudinal study

Parameters Group A
Patients with Gilbert syndrome (n = 83)
Group B
Patients with GS and eradicated HCV (n = 18)
Controls (n = 100) P value
Mean liver function tests in between jaundice episodes
 Total Bilirubin (mg/dL) Mean ± SD (range) 0.42 ± 0.4 (0.3–1.1) 0.61 ± 0.5 (0.5–1.2) 0.38 ± 0.3 (0.1–1.2) Group A vs. Controls: 0.4410
Group B vs. controls: 0.0087*
Group A vs. B: 0.0842
 Unconjugated Bilirubin (mg/dL) Mean ± SD (range) 0.21 ± 0.27 (0.1–0.38) 0.41 ± 0.29 (0.2–0.41) 0.17 ± 0.19 (0.1–0.38) Group A vs. Controls: 0.2425
Group B vs. controls: 0.0096*
Group A vs. B: 0.1628
 ALT (U/L) Mean ± SD (range) 20.16 ± 4.83 (18–28) 24.06 ± 6.18 (19–37) 19.86 ± 6.31 (17–36) Group A vs. Controls: 0.7220
Group B vs. controls: 0.0102*
Group A vs. B: 0.0038*
 AST (U/L) Mean ± SD (range) 23.18 ± 4.83 (17.14–38.5) 24.72 ± 6.82 (21.63–38.24) 22.15 ± 4.06 (17.3–32.63) Group A vs. Controls: 0.1188
Group B vs. controls: 0.0301*
Group A vs. B: 0.4770
 Alkaline Phosphatase (U/L) Mean ± SD (range) 80.36 ± 10.85 (75.81–106.17) 91.04 ± 10.74 (80.38–114) 81.16 ± 19.27 (7.45–91.5) Group A vs. Controls: 0.7369
Group B vs. controls: 0.0001**
Group A vs. B: 0.0003*
 Total Protein (g/L) Mean ± SD (range) 77.26 ± 5.39 (71.37–83.97) 76.95 ± 4.85 (70–82.96) 77.84 ± 5.83 (72.74–84.67) Group A vs. Controls: 0.4891
Group B vs. controls: 0.5429
Group A vs. B: 0.8225
 Albumin (g/dl) Mean ± SD (range) 4.1 ± 0.53 (3.6–5.4) 3.99 ± 0.61 (3.46–5.2) 4.2 ± 0.75 (3.76–5.5) Group A vs. Controls: 0.3085
Group B vs. Controls: 0.2643
Group A vs. B: 0.4391
Mean liver function tests during jaundice episodes
 Total Bilirubin (mg/dl) Mean ± SD (range) 3.56 ± 1.82 (1.46–5.7) 4.23 ± 2.01 (2.04–7.97) 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.3–1.4) Group A vs. B: 0.1677
Group A ys. Controls: < 0.0001
Group B vs. controls: < 0.0001
 Unconjugated Bilirubin (mg/dl) Mean ± SD (range) 2.07 ± 0.96 (1.7–3.6) 3.03 ± 1.08 (1.9–2.06) 0.37 ± 0.11 (0.1 to 0.6) Group A vs. B: 0.0001**
Group A ys. Controls: < 0.0001
Group B vs. controls: < 0.0001
 ALT (U/L) Mean ± SD (range) 25.59 ± 5.23 (19–39) 29.51 ± 8.06(23–39) 27.4 ± 4.5 (18–36) Group A vs. B: 0.0110*
Group A ys. Controls: 0.0083
Group B vs. controls: 0.1360
 AST (U/L) Mean ± SD (range) 27.8 ± 5.4 (22–35) 27.59 ± 6.14 (19–37) 29.4 ± 4.7 (20–37) Group A vs. B: 0.6308
Group A ys. Controls: 0.16
Group B vs. controls: 0.1589
 Alkaline Phosphatase (U/L) Mean ± SD (range) 84.2 ± 15.9 (77–123) 86.25 ± 17.37 (75–131) 85.9 ± 14.36 (45–97) Group A vs. B: 0.6267
Group A ys. Controls: 0.4488
Group B vs. controls: 0.9268
 Total Proteins (g/L) Mean ± SD (range) 74.81 ± 4.7 (71.65–82.9) 71.21 ± 3.9 (6.259–81.85) 73.63 ± 4.41 (71.25–80.2) Group A vs. B: 0.0026*
Group A ys. Controls: 0.2096
Group B vs. controls: 0.0510
 Serum Albumin (g/dl) Mean ± SD (range) 4.1 ± 0.61 (3.7–5.5) 3.89 ± 0.47 (3.5–5.3) 4.2 ± 0.59 (4.0–5.45) Group A vs. B: 0.1729
Group A ys. Controls: 0.2625
Group B vs. controls: 0.0371*
Hemoglobin, lipids and vitamins during jaundice episode
 Hemoglobin (gm/dl); mean ± SD 13.31 ± 1.97 (11.83–13.74) 12.19 ± 1.38 (12.16–14.14) 13.61 ± 2.01 (12.77–15.37) Group A vs. B: 0.5414
Group A ys. controls 0.3140
Group B vs. controls: 0.226
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) Mean ± SD (range) 169.85 ± 23.74 (132.72–175.92) 171.52 ± 27.84 (145.73–185.-14) 175.02 ± 20.14 (142.61–194.98) Group A vs. B: 0.7909
Group A ys. controls: 0.112
Group B vs. controls: 0.526
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) Mean ± SD (range) 139.37 ± 24.72 (127.29–240.84) 140.13 ± 31.52 (136.4–151.81) 142.817 ± 20.38 (136.87–159.74) Group A vs. B: 0.9111
Group A ys. controls: 0.302
Group B vs. controls: 0.639
 Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mg/dL)
Mean ± SD (range)
68.12 ± 22.81 (48.98–78.81) 70.32 ± 21.66 (54.26–76.82) 75.85 ± 22.87 (58.62–103.84) Group A vs. B: 0.709
Group A ys. controls: 0.023*
Group B vs. controls: 0.999
 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (mg/dL) Mean ± SD (range) 54.41 ± 12.72 (45.12–52.83) 57.92 ± 13.42 (40.18–64.08) 56.71 ± 13.85 (52.52–67.17) Group A vs. controls: 0.300
Group A ys. controls: 0.247
Group B vs. controls: 0.733
aVitamin B12 (pg/ml); mean ± SD (95% CI for the mean) 638. 21 ± 142.15 (507.17 to 769.25) 649. 17 ± 163.42 (467.90 to 730.44) 654.71 ± 195.82 (615.86 to 793.57) Group A vs. B: 0.7733
Group A ys. controls: 0.52
Group B vs. controls: 0.91
b25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (ng/mL); mean ± SD; (95% CI for the mean) 21.25 ± 15.89 (18.78 to 35.72) 20.72 ± 11.39 (17.05 to 45.39) 45.82 ± 17.38 (38.37 to 49.27) Group A vs. B: 0.89
Group A ys. controls: < 0.0001 **
Group B vs. controls: < 0.0001**
cFolic acid (ng/mL); mean ± SD (95% CI for the mean) 16.53 ± 3.63 (13.95 to 15.1) 15.93 ± 2.51 (14.38 to 16.67) 18.36 ± 3.16 (17.33 to 20.1) Group A ys. B: 0.4073
Group A vs. controls: < 0.0002**
Group B vs. controls: < 0.0001**
  1. aVitamin B12 normal range: 200 to 900 picograms (pg) per milliliter. Normal B12 status: > 550 pg/ml and deficient in B12: < 550 pg/ml
  2. b25-hydroxy-vitamin D normal range: 20 to 60 ng/mL. Levels less than 20 ng/mL suggest vitamin D deficiency
  3. cFolic acid normal range in adults: 2–20 ng/mL
  4. P value < 0.05 is significant
  5. * P value is significant
  6. ** P value is highly significant