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Table 2 Several significant differences in the clinical presentation existed between enrolled subjects with Gilbert syndrome and health controls

From: The frequency, clinical course, and health related quality of life in adults with Gilbert’s syndrome: a longitudinal study

Parameters Group A
Patients with Gilbert syndrome (n = 83)
Group B
Patients with GS and eradicated HCV (n = 18)
Controls (n = 100) P value
Jaundice episodes: number (percent) 83 (100) 18 (100) 0 Group A vs B: 1.000
Frequency of jaundice episodes per year. N (%)
▪ 1–5 57 (68.674) 10 (55.56) 0 Group A vs B: 1.0000
• 6–10 20 (24.096) 5 (27.76) 0 Group A vs B: 1.0000
• > 10 6 (7.229) 3 (16.67) 0 Group A vs B: 0.7111
Mean duration of individual jaundice episode (mean ± SD) days 19.832 ± 14. 21.1832 ± 15.68 0 Group A vs B: 0.7219
Other symptoms/signs during hyperbilribunemia attacks in GS subjects and control subjects; n (%)
 Fatigue: number (%) 36 (43.37) 4 (22.22) 2(2) Group A vs. B: 0.1163
Group A vs controls: < 0.0001**
Group B vs controls: < 0.0001**
 Abdominal pain: number (%) 21 (25.3) 8 (44.44) 3 (3) Group A vs. B: 0.1490
Group A vs controls: < 0.0001**
Group B vs controls: < 0.0001**
 Dyspepsia: number (%) 19 (22.89) 7 (38.89) 2 (2) Group A vs. B: 0.2321
Group A vs controls: < 0.0001**
Group B vs controls: < 0.0001**
 Bloating; number (%) 17 (20.48) 9 (50) 10(10) Group A vs. B: 0.0159*
Group A ys. Controls: 0.0595*
Group B vs. controls: 0.002*
 Loss of appetite: number (%) 10 (12.048) 2 (11.111) 13 (13) Group A vs. B:0.6125
Group A ys. Controls: 1.0000
Group B vs. controls: 1.0000
Comorbid conditions
• Diabetes mellitus (Type 1) 4 (4.82) 0 0 Group A vs B: 1.0000
• Diabetes mellitus (Type 2) 2 (2.41) (11.11) 0 Group A vs B: 0.1449
• Hypertension 1 (1.2) 2 (11.11) 0 Group A vs B: 0.0811
• Rheumatoid arthritis 2 (2.41) 0 0 Group A vs B: 1.0000
• Rheumatic heart valve disease 1 (1.2) 0 0 Group A vs B: 1.0000
Food intolerances and allergies: Celiac/lactose intolerance/food allergies 9 (10.84) 1 (5.56) 3 (3) Group A vs B: 0.6859
Group A vs. controls: 0.0391*
Group B vs. controls: 0.4890
Factors associated with attacks of clinical jaundice n (%)
 Prolonged fasting > 12 h/Ramadan fasting 60 (72.289) 14 (77.78) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.7736
 Heavy physical exercise 25 (30.120) 4 (22.22) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.5788
 Menstrual abnormalities in women 7 (8.43) 3 (16.67) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.3779
 Pregnancy (in 8 women) 8/8 (100) 0 10 (10)  
 Cesarean delivery 4 (4.82) 0 0 Group A vs. B: 1.0000
 Systemic infections 21 (25.301) 9 (50) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.0486*
 Surgery 27 (32.530) 2 (11.11) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.0873
Diets reported as potentially related to jaundice episodes; n (%)
 Drugs (N;%)
  -Paracetamol 2 (2.4) 1 (22.22) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.6186
  -Antibiotics(amoxicillin/clavulanate; ofloxacin) 7 (8.434) 2 (11.11)   Group A vs. B: 0.0500*
  -Direct acting anti-viral agents 0 7 (38.889) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.6600
  -Diclofenac 3 (3.6) 1 (16.67) 0 Group A vs. B: 0.1493
  -Oral hypoglycemic drugs 1 (1.2) 0 0 Group A vs. B: 0.3261
  -Anti-hypertensive drugs 0 0 0 Group A vs. B: 0.1782
Diets reported as potentially related to jaundice episodes; n (%)
 High animal proteins rich/ Fat rich diets 4 (4.82) 0 0  
  1. P values < 0.05 are significant
  2. * significant P value
  3. ** Highly significant statisitcal statistical difference