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Table 4 Comparison of pathologic characteristics between laparoscopic stapleless left lateral sectionectomy (LH) and open left lateral sectionectomy (OH) for hepatocellular carcinoma

From: Stapleless laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: reappraisal of the Louisville statement by a young liver surgeon

Variables LH group a
(n = 18)
OH group
(n = 75)
p value
Tumor size (cm)b 3.2 ± 0.50 4.9 ± 0.41 0.011
Tumor size (> 5 cm (%)) 2 (11.1) 26 (34.7) 0.083
Encapsulation (Yes (%)) 16 (88.9) 64 (85.3) 1.000
Capsular invasion (Yes (%)) 12 (66.7) 45 (60.8) 0.789
Tumor rupture (Yes (%)) 0 (0) 13 (17.3) 0.066
Vascular invasion (Yes (%)) 5 (27.8) 20 (26.7) 1.000
Daughter nodules (Yes (%)) 2 (11.1) 9 (12.0) 1.000
Resection margin (Negative (%)) 18 (100) 74 (98.7) 1.000
Safety margin (≥1 cm (%)) 11 (61.1) 35 (46.7) 0.304
Edmonson and Steiner grade (III and IV (%)) 6 (35.3) 27 (37.0) 1.000
Cirrhosis (Yes (%)) 8 (44.4) 44 (58.7) 0.302
T stage
 T1 (%) 11 (61.1) 37 (52.9) 0.631
 T2 (%) 4 (22.2) 15 (21.4)  
 T3a/T3b (%) 0/4 (0/5.7) 1/2 (1.4/11.1)  
 T4 (%) 1 (5.6) 13 (18.6)  
  1. ainclude laparoscopic and robotic left lateral sectionectomy
  2. bmean ± standard error of mean