Skip to main content

Table 5 Risk factors for perforation from multivariate logistic regression and sensitivity analysis

From: Evaluation of risk factors for perforated peptic ulcer

  Odds Ratios (95% Confidence Interval)
Stepwise Forced-entry
Social History Logistic Conditional Logistic Conditional
 Smoking    1.02 1.39
(0.45–2.31) (0.42–4.64)
 Alcohol    0.68 0.56
(0.31–1.50) (0.19–1.62)
Past Medical History
 PUD 7.81 21.9 3.67 6.40
(1.98–30.8) (3.92–122.5) (1.47–9.18) (1.13–36.2)
 GERD 256.7    
(12.5–5274.1)
Medications
 NSAID daily use 28.5   4.71 5.40
(3.00–270.3) (1.29–17.2) (0.55–53.5)
 NSAID rescue use 0.05    
(0.004–0.57)
 Antiplatelet 5.90   2.37 3.20
(2.59–13.4) (1.29–4.34) (0.75–13.6)
 Anticoagulant    1.04 0.85
(0.13–8.41) (0.03–22.3)
 PPI*    0.50 2.03
(0.13–1.86) (0.24–16.9)
Physical Findings
Location of pain No pain Reference
 Upper abdomen 4.40   1.90 2.61
(1.10–17.7) (0.71–5.12) (0.59–11.5)
 Mid abdomen 2.20   1.23 2.47
(0.28–16.6) (0.28–5.45) (0.13–46.6)
 Lower abdomen 1.62   0.83 2.18
(0.27–9.81) (0.21–3.23) (0.33–14.4)
 Multiple abdomen 287.7   39.4 51.8
(22.9–3619.8) (8.79–176.3) (3.57–752.9)
 Muscular defense 366.2 76.6 28.4 23.8
(61.9–2166.2) (13.7–429.6) (11.6–69.6) (5.70–100.0)
 Back pain 24.4 100.7   
(3.30–180.6) (7.05–1438.0)
 Chest pain 0.002    
(0.00–0.12)
 Loss of appetite    3.63 3.43
(1.40–9.46) (0.75–15.7)
 Hematemesis 141.2    
(7.02–2838.0)
 Diarrhea 0.19    
(0.04–0.89)
H. Pylori infection 1522.0    
(14.4–160,502.9)
 Vomiting 0.03   0.39 0.42
(0.01–0.16) (0.18–0.88) (0.12–1.44)
 Nausea 9.69    
(2.27–41.4)
Laboratory Data
 C-Reactive Protein 1.13   1.04 1.02
(1.05–1.22) (1.00–1.10) (0.95–1.11)
 Platelet counts    1.00 1.01
(1.01–1.01) (1.00–1.01)
 Hemoglobin 0.75 0.78   
(0.65–0.87) (0.66–0.92)
 Total bilirubin 0.32    
(0.16–0.68)
 AST 0.97    
(0.95–1.00)
 Creatinine   1.67   
(1.10–2.53)
  1. Numbers in bold indicate that the p value is less than 0.05