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Table 3 Selected Asian studies of core constipation symptoms

From: Frequency patterns of core constipation symptoms among the Asian adults: a systematic review

Reference/ Country Sample /Age Settings Study design Sampling Sample size (response rate) Diagnostic criteria
Xin et al. (2014), China Chronic constipation patient, 18–80 years old One clinic Cross-sectional Purposive 184 (100%): 166FC (Rome II) 174 FC (Rome III) Rome II & Rome III
Zhao et al. (2011), China Adult, 18–80 years old 5 regions of China Cross-sectional Randomized, stratified multistage 16,078 (89%): 948FC 183 IBS-C Rome II
Dong et al. (2013), China Volunteer students, 19–23 years old One university Cross-sectional Random (study areas) 4638 (92.76%): 253 FC Rome III
Yao et al. (2012), China IBS patient, >20 years old Three hospitals Cross-sectional Purposive 754 (97.2%): 108 IBS-C Rome III
Lu et al. (2006),Taiwan Volunteer adult, ≥20 years old One hospital Cross-sectional Convenience 2018 (70.4%): 172 FC 54 IBS-C Rome II
Lee et al. (2014), South Korea Self-reported constipation adult, 20–89 years old One National Health Screening Program Cross-sectional Random 625 (74.9%) Rome III
Gonlachanvit & Patcharatrakul (2005), Thailand Chronic constipation patients, 30 to 70 years old One hospital Cross-sectional Purposive 103FC (100%) Rome II
Jayasimhan et al. (2013), Malaysia Outpatient, 20–78 years old One clinic Randomized-controlled trial Purposive 108FC (90%) Rome III
Kaboli et al. (2010), Iran Households, ≥16 years old 5 suburb cities in one province Cross-sectional Random (postal code) 18,180 (92%): 459 FC Rome III
Shalmani et al. (2011), Iran Households, ≥16 years old 5 urban areas in one province Cross-sectional Cluster (postal code) 18,180 (94%): 435 FC Rome III
Roshandel et al. (2006), Iran Outpatient, >20 years old One clinic Cross-sectional Purposive 1023 (100%): 115 FC 32 IBS-C Rome II