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Table 3 Comparison of clinical characteristics in females with MS between minimal drinkers and very light drinkers

From: Influence of light alcohol consumption on lifestyle-related diseases: a predictor of fatty liver with liver enzyme elevation in Japanese females with metabolic syndrome

  Minimal drinkers (n = 250) Very light drinkers (n = 94) P-value (P a-value)
Age (years) 54.6 ± 7.9 54.5 ± 7.8 NS
BMI (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 3.3 26.0 ± 4.0 NS
WC (cm) 89.0 ± 6.8 89.5 ± 8.0 NS
SBP (mmHg) 128.9 ± 13.4 131.8 ± 12.8 (<0.01)
DBP (mmHg) 77.3 ± 9.9 79.6 ± 7.5 (<0.01)
Hypertension, n (%) 197 (78.8 %) 85 (90.4 %) (<0.001)
T-CHO (mg/dl) 213.2 ± 34.8 218.5 ± 34.5 (NS)
TG (mg/dl) 123.3 ± 67.7 116.6 ± 56.3 (NS)
HDL (mg/dl) 59.3 ± 13.9 62.8 ± 13.2 (<0.05)
LDL (mg/dl) 137.1 ± 31.0 140.3 ± 31.5 (NS)
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 235 (94.0 %) 89 (94.7 %) (NS)
UA (mg/dl) 4.9 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.1 (NS)
FPG (mg/dl) 106.7 ± 14.7 105.9 ± 13.6 (NS)
HbA1c (NGSP) (%) 6.0 ± 0.6 5.8 ± 0.4 (<0.05)
IGT, n (%) 186 (74.4 %) 75 (79.8 %) (NS)
ALT (IU/l) 28.5 ± 23.2 23.9 ± 15.2 (<0.05)
AST (IU/l) 23.0 ± 10.4 22.0 ± 8.0 (NS)
GGT (IU/l) 30.5 ± 22.9 36.9 ± 36.6 (NS)
FIB-4 index 2.5 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.6 (NS)
Fatty liver, n (%) 148 (59.2 %) 40 (42.6 %) (<0.01)
FL with ALT elevation, n (%) 60 (24.0 %) 16 (17.0 %) (NS)
V-type MS, n (%) 39 (15.6 %) 16 (17.0 %) (NS)
Past history of smoking, n (%) 28 (11.2 %) 21 (22.3 %) <0.05
  1. Data are given as means ± standard deviation (SD), and as number (%) for categorical variables. P-value is based on the X2 test or Student’s t-test. Significant is at the 5 % level
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FL fatty liver, FPG fasting plasma glucose, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high density lipoprotein, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, LDL low density lipoprotein, MS metabolic syndrome, NGSP National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NS not significant, SBP systolic blood pressure, T- CHO total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, UA uric acid, V-type visceral type, WC waist circumference. ALT elevation was defined as ALT level of >31 IU/l in this study. Minimal drinkers were subjects who drank from more than zero to less than 10 g/day of alcohol. Very light drinkers were subjects who drank from 10 to less than 20 g/day of alcohol
  3. aAdjusted for age, BMI, WC, smoking history, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and IGT