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Table 5 Mean costs per patient per year for medication subgroups (mean euro (SD)) of primary and secondary care IBS patients and their matched controls specified per year before and after diagnosis

From: Comparison of medical costs generated by IBS patients in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands

  T = −3 Mean (SD) T = −2 Mean (SD) T = −1 Mean (SD) Mean annual before Mean (SD) T = +1 Mean (SD) T = +2 Mean (SD) T = +3 Mean (SD) Mean annual after Mean (SD) Mean dif Mean (SD) p value difference
1. Laxatives Primary care patients 10 (38) 13 (41) 12 (40) 32 (105) 34 (107) 39 (123) 34 (110 23 (101) 0.72
  Secondary care patients 9 (48) 9 (40) 18 (45) 14 (44) 46 (76) 33 (76) 36 (83) 39 (78) 25 (66)  
  Primary care controls 1 (7) 3 (14) 2 (12) 3 (17) 2 (13) 4 (22) 3 (17) 1 (17)  
  Secondary care controls 5 (28) 5 (28) 5 (29) 5 (28) 5 (30) 6 (31) 6 (32) 6 (31) 0 (30)  
2. Spasmolytics Primary care patients 6 (24) 6 (24) 6 (24) 11 (31) 7 (25) 9 (33) 10 (29) 4 (28) 0.25
  Secondary care patients 12 (70) 13 (75) 14 (76) 13 (75) 14 (73) 16 (77) 16 (76) 15 (75) 2 (75)  
  Primary care controls 0 (0) 0 (2) 0 (2) 0 (6) 0 (3) 0 (3) 0 (4) 0 (4) 0.99
  Secondary care controls 6 (52) 7 (53) 7 (52) 7 (52) 7 (52) 8 (53) 7 (47) 7 (51) 0 (52)  
3. Anti-depressants Primary care patients 7 (45) 10 (45) 9 (45) 15 (84) 17 (100) 20 (100) 16 (94) 7 (86) 0.66
  Secondary care patients 2 (13) 2 (16) 5 (20) 3 (18) 9 (29) 8 (29) 9 (32) 8 (30) 5 (25)  
  Primary care controls 2 (11) 4 (38) 4 (33) 8 (49) 10 (67) 8 (51) 9 (56) 5 (53) 0.02×
  Secondary care controls 1 (9) 1 (9) 1 (10) 1 (10) 1 (9) 1 (9) 1 (11) 1 (10) 0 (10)  
4. Antacids Primary care patients 83 (229) 72 (181) 75 (196) 76 (184) 70 (155) 60 (138) 70 (164) −5 (171) <0.01×
  Secondary care patients 47 (132) 56 (139) 70 (153) 62 (146) 117 (214) 113 (204) 115 (204) 115 (209) 54 (186)  
  Primary care controls 26 (98) 22 (78) 23 (84) 27 (115) 30 (112) 29 (106) 28 (112) 5 (107) 0.16
  Secondary care controls 36 (120) 37 (115) 36 (114) 36 (115) 36 (116) 35 (110) 33 (106) 35 (112) −1 (113)  
5. Hypnotics Primary care patients 12 (38) 8 (29) 10 (32) 8 (32) 7 (29) 4 (19) 7 (28) −3 (29) <0.01×
  Secondary care patients 8 (30) 9 (33) 9 (34) 9 (33) 12 (41) 13 (42) 11 (40) 12 (41) 3 (38)  
  Primary care controls 6 (23) 5 (22) 5 (22) 6 (27) 5 (25) 3 (19) 5 (25) 0 (24) 0.99
  Controls to referred 6 (29) 6 ± 27) 6 (27) 6 (27) 6 (28) 6 (28) 5 (26) 5 (28) 0 (28)  
6. Other ATC group N drugsa Primary care patients 55 (139) 45 (152) 48 (148) 53 (144) 71 (234) 75 (274) 64 (214) 16 (203) 0.40
  Secondary care patients 83 (309) 82 (305) 90 (357) 86 (334) 106 (397) 115 (410) 120 (412) 112 (404) 26 (377)  
  Primary care controls 28 (79) 56 (311) 47 (265) 64 (456) 65 (359) 65 (352) 65 (400) 17 (378) 0.29
  Secondary care controls 55 (246) 60 (292) 60 (319) 59 (300) 64 (354) 58 (306) 58 (293) 61 (327) 1 (316)  
7. Other ATC group A drugsb Primary care patients 44 (183) 42 (194) 43 (191) 40 (178) 41 (134) 46 (141) 42 (155) −1 (163) <0.01×
  Secondary care patients 20 (97) 22 (95) 28 (125) 25 (112) 64 (223) 75 (257) 99 (304) 75 (253) 50 (207)  
  Primary care controls 29 (97) 35 (146) 33 (133) 32 (170) 36 (195) 24 (120) 32 (169) −2 (163) 0.88
  Secondary care controls 42 (182) 45 (193) 45 (186) 45 (188) 43 (182) 45 (188) 42 (185) 44 (185) −1 (186)  
8. All other drugsc Primary care patients 182 (321) 252 (454) 232 (419) 287 (508) 333 (649) 497 (1944) 354 (1085) 123 (992) 0.02×
  Secondary care patients 296 (830) 352 (1009) 397 (1065) 367 (1015) 570 (1504) 627 (1565) 757 (1859) 627 (1604) 261 (1392)  
  Primary care controls 306 (678) 356 (1263) 341 (1124) 308 (1082) 322 (1070) 356 (1320) 325 (1140) −17 (1137) 0.57
  Secondary care controls 373 (1258) 393 (1235) 397 (1295) 392 (1270) 399 (1464) 401 (1202) 410 (1152) 402 (1320) 9 (1299)  
  1. T = −3 indicates three years before diagnosis, T = +1 one year after diagnosis and so forth
  2. ×Significant difference at alpha = 0.05
  3. ATC group N drugs
  4. aATC group N drugs: Drugs typically aimed at the neurological system, excluding Anti-depressants and Hypnotics
  5. bATC group A drugs: Drugs typically aimed at the alimentary tract, excluding laxatives, spasmolytics and antacids
  6. cExcluding ATC group A and group N drugs