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Table 3 Perceived food intolerance according to food categories and FODMAP content in 817 Giardia exposed and 1128 controls three years after an outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway, 2004

From: Perceived food intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome in a population 3 years after a giardiasis-outbreak: a historical cohort study

  Exposed N = 817 Controls N = 1128 Unadjusted Adjustedb
Food categoriesa n % n % ORc 95 % CI ORc 95 % CI
Food categories         
 Dairy products 163 20.0 129 11.4 1.93 1.50 to 2.48 1.95 1.51 to 2.51
 Spicy foods 119 14.6 137 12.1 1.23 0.95 to 1.61 1.25 0.96 to 1.63
 Fatty foods 48 5.9 27 2.4 2.55 1.57 to 4.12 2.63 1.62 to 4.26
 Vegetables 118 14.4 114 10.1 1.50 1.14 to 1.98 1.56 1.18 to 2.06
 Fruit 75 9.2 45 4.0 2.43 1.66 to 3.56 2.45 1.67 to 3.60
 Cereals 128 15.7 99 8.8 1.93 1.46 to 2.55 1.98 1.49 to 2.62
 Alcohol 66 8.1 43 3.8 2.22 1.49 to 3.29 2.29 1.54 to 3.40
 Coffee 39 4.8 52 4.6 1.04 0.68 to 1.59 1.05 0.68 to 1.61
 Soda 17 2.1 23 2.0 1.02 0.54 to 1.92 1.03 0.55 to 1.94
FODMAP Content d         
 High FODMAP 308 37.7 277 24.6 1.86 1.53 to 2.26 1.91 1.57 to 2.33
 Low FODMAP 230 28.2 231 20.5 1.52 1.23 to 1.88 1.55 1.26 to 1.92
FODMAP subtype         
 Oligosaccharides 190 23.3 187 16.6 1.53 1.22 to 1.91 1.58 1.25 to 1.99
 Lactose 156 19.1 128 11.3 1.84 1.43 to 2.38 1.86 1.44 to 2.40
 Polyols 78 9.5 45 4.0 2.54 1.74 to 3.71 2.57 1.76 to 3.77
 Fructose 71 8.7 39 3.5 2.66 1.78 to 3.97 2.69 1.80 to 4.02
  1. Abbreviations: FODMAP fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols; IBS irritable bowel syndrome; CI confidence interval; OR Odds ratio.
  2. aThe question pertaining to these categories was: “If you react (to food), to what kind is that?”
  3. bAdjusted for gender and age
  4. cStatistically significant ORs are presented in bold font
  5. dAssumed FODMAP content of the response(s) to the open-ended question about food