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Table 2 Multiple linear regression analysis of the associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption with markers of liver injury

From: Associations of coffee consumption with markers of liver injury in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study

Outcome per unit increase in coffee ALTab ASTab Fetuin-Aac NAFLD liver fat scoread
  β (95 % CI) p value β (95 % CI) p value β (95 % CI) p value β (95 % CI) p value
Caffeinated coffee   
Model 1 −0.07 (−0.13, −0.01) 0.0298 −0.05 (−0.09, −0.01) 0.0200 0.03 (−0.02, 0.09) 0.26 −0.07 (−0.12, −0.01) 0.0122
Model 2 −0.08 (−0.15, −0.02) 0.0100 −0.05 (−0.10, −0.01) 0.0148 0.05 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.14 −0.06 (−0.10, −0.01) 0.0218
Model 3 −0.08 (−0.15, −0.02) 0.0111 −0.05 (−0.10, −0.01) 0.0155 0.04 (−0.12, 0.11) 0.17 −0.05 (−0.10, −0.01) 0.0293
Decaffeinated coffee   
Model 1 −0.02 (−0.14, 0.10) 0.80 −0.03 (−0.11, 0.05) 0.42 −0.09 (−0.20, 0.02) 0.12 0.02 (−0.07, −0.12) 0.66
Model 2 −0.01 (−0.13, 0.11) 0.86 −0.03 (−0.11, 0.05) 0.44 −0.10 (−0.21, 0.02) 0.09 0.04 (−0.05, 0.13) 0.36
Model 3 −0.02 (−0.14, 0.09) 0.69 −0.04 (−0.12, 0.04) 0.36 −0.08 (−0.19, 0.04) 0.19 0.03 (−0.06, 0.12) 0.47
  1. Model 1: Age, sex, ethnicity
  2. Model 2: Adjusted as in model 1 + energy intake, energy expenditure, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption
  3. Model 3: Adjusted as in model 2 + whole grain consumption, vegetable intake, fruit intake, % energy from saturated fat, % energy from polyunsaturated fat, alternate coffee type, regular soft drinks, lemonade/sweetened mineral water
  4. aLog transformation;bn = 1005 with slight variation across models;cn = 650 with slight variation across models;dn = 998 with slight variation across models