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Table 1 Participant characteristics by categories of total coffee consumption (n = 1005a)

From: Associations of coffee consumption with markers of liver injury in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study

  Total coffee consumption (servings/day)  
Variable None >0 to <0.5 0.5 to <1 1 to <2 ≥2 p
n (%) 214 (21.3) 195 (19.4) 377 (37.5) 170 (16.9) 49 (4.9) -
Age (years) 54 (47–62) 54 (47–62) 55 (48–63) 54 (48–60) 54 (46–61) 0.45
Sex, n (%)       0.07
Males 81 (37.9) 82 (42.1) 164 (43.5) 87 (51.2) 26 (53.1)  
Females 133 (62.2) 113 (57.9) 213 (56.5) 83 (48.8) 23 (46.9)  
Ethnicity, n (%)       <0.0001
Non-Hispanic white 99 (46.3) 61 (31.3) 136 (36.1) 83 (48.8) 28 (57.1)  
Hispanic 48 (22.4) 45 (23.1) 169 (44.8) 65 (38.2) 17 (34.7)  
African American 67 (31.3) 89 (45.6) 72 (19.1) 22 (12.9) 4 (8.2)  
Glucose tolerance status, n (%)       0.0215
Normal glucose tolerance 141 (65.9) 121 (62.1) 264 (70.0) 113 (66.5) 42 (85.7)  
Impaired glucose tolerance 73 (34.1) 74 (37.9) 113 (30.0) 57 (33.5) 7 (14.3)  
Highest education level completed, n (%)       0.0003
≤ Elementary 6 (2.8) 16 (8.2) 36 (9.6) 14 (8.2) 4 (8.2)  
≤ High school 61 (28.5) 48 (24.6) 151 (40.1) 45 (26.5) 16 (32.7)  
≤ College 114 (53.3) 92 (47.2) 137 (36.3) 76 (44.7) 22 (44.9)  
≤ Graduate school 33 (15.4) 39 (20.0) 53 (14.1) 35 (20.6) 7 (14.3)  
Smoking status, n (%)       <0.0001
Never 130 (60.8) 91 (46.7) 169 (44.8) 56 (32.9) 7 (14.3)  
Past 62 (29.0) 75 (38.5) 138 (36.6) 87 (51.2) 21 (42.9)  
Current 22 (10.3) 29 (14.9) 70 (18.6) 27 (15.9) 21 (42.9)  
Alcohol intake category, n (%)       <0.0001
Never drank 43 (20.1) 13 (6.7) 43 (11.4) 5 (3.0) 2 (4.1)  
Ex-drinker 47 (22.0) 23 (11.8) 46 (12.2) 24 (14.2) 6 (12.2)  
Very little 38 (17.8) 35 (18.0) 63 (16.8) 24 (14.2) 10 (20.4)  
<0.5 drinks/day 45 (21.0) 70 (35.9) 120 (31.9) 54 (32.0) 15 (30.6)  
0.5 to <1 drinks/day 15 (7.0) 23 (11.8) 39 (10.4) 20 (11.8) 4 (8.2)  
1 to <3 drinks/day 20 (9.4) 27 (13.9) 51 (13.6) 32 (18.9) 9 (18.4)  
≥3 drinks/day 6 (2.8) 4 (2.1) 14 (3.7) 10 (5.9) 3 (6.1)  
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 (25.0–30.5) 27.2 (24.6–31.2) 27.5 (24.8–30.6) 27.4 (25.0–30.2) 26.5 (23.6–30.6) 0.49
Waist circumference (cm) 88.8 (80.0–97.3) 89.8 (81.8–97.0) 90.1 (81.5–98.7) 90.9 (81.7–99.1) 89.7 (79.3–97.8) 0.62
Insulin sensitivity (x 10−4 min−1[μU’ml]−1) 1.5 (0.8–2.8) 1.6 (0.9–2.9) 1.6 (0.9–3.0) 1.8 (0.9–2.9) 2.5 (1.1–3.8) 0.13
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 76 (35.5) 76 (39.0) 156 (41.4) 72 (42.4) 13 (26.5) 0.20
Dietary variables
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1736 (1321–2301) 1596 (1157–2110) 1945 (1366–2337) 1852 (1450–2471) 1902 (1334–2589) 0.0004
Total energy expended (kcal kg−1 year −1) 13991 (12947–16047) 13815 (12869–15165) 14189 (12929–16059) 14124 (13085–15803) 14256 (12752–15441) 0.28
Whole grain consumption (servings/day) 0.7 (0.2–1.2) 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.6 (0.2–1.1) 0.7 (0.3–1.2) 0.5 (0.1–1.0) 0.52
% Energy from saturated fat 11.9 (9.5–14.1) 11.6 (9.0–13.9) 12.5 (10.3-14.6) 12.7 (11.0–14.8) 12.7 (10.8–14.6) 0.0003
% Energy from polyunsaturated fat 6.6 (5.4–8.1) 6.4 (5.2–7.8) 6.4 (5.3–7.7) 6.2 (5.4–7.7) 6.3 (5.3–7.6) 0.63
Regular soda consumption (servings/day) 0.03 (0.0–0.5) 0.03 (0.0–0.1) 0.03 (0.0–0.1) 0.03 (0.0–0.1) 0.07 (0.0–0.3) 0.0313
Markers of liver injury
ALT (units/l) 17.0 (11.0–23.0) 16.0 (12.0–24.0) 16.0 (11.0–22.0) 17.0 (11.0–24.0) 15.0 (9.0–23.0) 0.40
AST (units/l) 21.0 (17.0–26.0) 21.0 (16.0–26.0) 21.0 (17.0–26.0) 21.0 (16.0-25.0) 19.0 (16.0–24.0) 0.56
Fetuin-A (μg/ml)b 938.9 (741.5–1256.7) 992.6 (828.4–1196.5) 974.3 (835.8–1165.7) 986.8 (839.6–1260.7) 1125.8 (903.9–1273.6) 0.52
NAFLD liver fat scorec −0.9 (−2.0, 0.8) −1.1 (−2.1, 0.4) −1.1 (−2.2, 0.3) −1.0 (−2.2, 0.5) −1.8 (−2.7, −0.1) 0.23
  1. aSlight variation across variables
  2. bn = 650
  3. cn = 988