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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of the study groups with gastrointestinally mediated allergy (GMA) and the non-allergic control group

From: Excretion of urinary histamine and N-tele methylhistamine in patients with gastrointestinal food allergy compared to non-allergic controls during an unrestricted diet and a hypoallergenic diet

  Gastrointestinally mediated allergy Non-allergic control group*
n = patients (%) n = patients (%)
Number of patients n = 56 n = 44
Age [years] 40.9 (19–58) 38.2 (16–76)
Sex [female/male] 35/21 20/24
Healthy volunteers 0/56 19/44
Carbohydrate malassimilation 29/56 (57.1) 20/44
Total serum IgE [kU/L] 74 (28–132) 49 (12–122)
Atopy 36/56 5/44
Confirmation of GMA by 56/56 0/56
DBPCFC/SBPCFC 41positive/15positive 6 DBPCFC negative/0
Other comorbidities  
Sensitization to grass/tree pollen 14/56 5/44
Associated gastroenterological diagnoses (esophagitis, ulcer, pancreatitis, colitis) 11/56 3/44
Oral allergy syndrome 5/56 0/44
Atopic dermatitis 5/56 0/44
Allergic rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis 4/56 7/44
Eosinophilic esophagitis 2/56 0/44
Anaphylaxis 2/56 0/44
Asthma bronchiale 1/56 0/44
  1. *The control group consisted of 19 healthy volunteers without any food intolerance and 25 patients with non-allergic carbohydrate malassimilation (n = 20), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (n = 3) and psychosomatic disease (n = 2). The group with gastrointestinally mediated allergy (GMA) includes 56 patients, in whom the allergic disease was proven oral food challenge tests. The different types of allergy found in this group are further differentiated and illustrated in Table 2.
  2. Atopy status was defined as positive, when history or clinical manifestation of the patient gave evidence for seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis or eczema, asthma bronchiale and/or allergic rhino - conjunctivitis.
  3. N = patient number, DBPCFC/SBPCFC double-blinded- or single-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenge test