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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population: frequency of environmental exposures

From: Early life environment and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases

Environmental exposure Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis
N (%) N (%)
Breastfeeding
No 124 [46] 81 (45)
Yes 146 (54) 101 (55)
Delivery via caesarean section
No 258 (86) 172 (84)
Yes 41 (14) 34 (16)
Hospitalization before age five years
No 217 (78) 158 (82)
Yes 60 (22) 35 (18)
Childhood pets
No 102 (33) 75 (33)
Yes 208 (67) 151 (67)
Growing up on farm
No 299 (97) 215 (96)
Yes 10 (3) 10 (4)
Exposure to daycare during childhood
No 178 (60) 131 (61)
Yes 121 (40) 84 (39)
Childhood exposure to cigarette smoke
No 140 (47) 157 (53)
Yes 113 (52) 104 (48)