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Table 3 Odds ratios for the risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease associated with current use of medications (nested case–control analysis)

From: Risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease in a cohort of new users of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events

  Controls N = 2000 n (%) Uncomplicated PUD cases N = 309 n (%) Adjusted OR (95% CI) a
NSAIDs 206 (10.3) 57 (18.4) 1.50 (1.06-2.13)
  Selective COX-2 inhibitors 28 (1.4) 13 (4.2) 2.33 (1.13-4.79)
  tNSAIDs 178 (8.9) 44 (14.2) 1.36 (0.93-1.99)
Paracetamol 492 (24.6) 114 (36.9) 1.45 (1.08-1.95)
Low-dose ASA 1515 (75.8) 245 (79.3) 1.33 (0.87-2.04)
Clopidogrel 157 (7.9) 29 (9.4) 0.94 (0.60-1.48)
Oral anticoagulants 84 (4.2) 8 (2.6) 0.68 (0.31-1.48)
Dipyridamole 62 (3.1) 9 (2.9) 0.78 (0.37-1.62)
PPIs 453 (22.7) 107 (34.6) 1.68 (1.26-2.25)
  Used on start dateb 266 (13.3) 48 (15.5) 1.25 (0.86-1.80)
  Use initiated after start datec 187 (9.3) 59 (19.1) 2.38 (1.65-3.42)
H2RAs 60 (3.0) 23 (7.4) 2.26 (1.34-3.82)
Oral steroids 58 (2.9) 21 (6.8) 1.88 (1.09-3.25)
SSRIs 103 (5.2) 27 (8.7) 1.45 (0.91-2.32)
Tricyclic antidepressants 105 (5.3) 19 (6.1) 1.03 (0.61-1.74)
Statins 1431 (71.6) 220 (71.2) 0.89 (0.65-1.23)
  1. aOR adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time, health service utilization (PCP visits and referrals), smoking and drug use during study period (gastroprotective drugs, NSAIDs, ASA and paracetamol). Relative to non-use of drug.
  2. bPPI therapy in use on the start date or started within the 30 days after the start date.
  3. cPPI therapy started after the first 30 days of follow-up.
  4. Abbreviations: ASA-Acetylsalicylic acid; CI-Confidence interval; COX-2-Cyclooxygenase-2; H 2 RAs-Histamine-2 receptor antagonists; NSAIDs-Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OR-Odds ratio; PCP-Primary care physician; PPIs-Proton pump inhibitors; PUD-Peptic ulcer disease; SSRIs-Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; tNSAIDs-Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.