Transmission electron microscopy of mouse intestine. Transmission electron microscopy of mice intestine from the control groups (A, E, and F), the GalN/LPS group (B, C, and D), and groups that received antibodies prior to ALF induction (G and H). A) Saline control group (×30,000). Epithelial cells and TJ (→) were intact. B) At 2 h after injection (×120,000). Epithelial cells were swollen and shrunken. Microvilli and organelles were normal. TJs (→) were intact. C) At 6 h after injection (×100,000). Microvilli were almost normal TJs (→) visible in this section were not disrupted. D) At 9 h after injection (×60,000). The mitochondria of the endothelial cells were loose. TJs (→) were disrupted. Organelles were swollen and had reduced electron density. At 9 h after injection (×10,000), some microvilli were loose. A TJ (→) was disrupted. E) LPS control group (×120,000). F) GalN control group (×20,000). Epithelial cells were slightly shrunken and TJs (→) were intact. G) Anti-TNF-α IgG group (×80,000). Epithelial cells were slightly shrunken and TJs (→) between endothelial cells were intact. H) Anti-TNF-α R1 antibody group (×80,000). The TJs (→) between the endothelial cells were intact. I) TNF-α-treated group (×50,000). TJ (→) were intact. J) At 9 h after GalN/TNF-α administration (×100,000). TJs (→) were disrupted.