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Table 1 Distributions and odds ratios of ESCC associated with selected demographic characteristics and substance uses

From: Polymorphism in COX-2 modifies the inverse association between Helicobacter pyloriseropositivity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan: a case control study

Factor/Category Cases Controls  
  No. (%) No. (%) AOR1 (95% CI)
Total No. 180 194  
Anatomic subsite of the esophagus    
   Upper 1/3 39 (22)   
   Middle 1/3 83 (46)   
   Lower 1/3 58 (32)   
Age (years)    
   <50 63 (35) 70 (36) 1.0
   51–60 36 (20) 58 (30) 0.7 (0.4 – 1.2)
   61–70 45 (25) 36 (18) 1.4 (0.8 – 2.4)
   >70 36 (20) 30 (16) 1.3 (0.7 – 2.4)
Gender    
   Female 5 (3) 7 (4) 1.0
   Male 175 (97) 187 (96) 1.3 (0.4 – 4.2)
Ethnicity    
   Fukienese 138 (77) 152 (78) 1.0
   Aborigines 31 (17) 28 (15) 1.2 (0.7 – 2.1)
   Others 11 (6) 14 (7) 0.9 (0.4 – 2.0)
Education level (years)    
   <7 94 (52) 51 (26) 1.0
   7–12 77 (43) 86 (44) 0.7 (0.4 – 1.4)
   >12 9 (5) 57 (30) 0.2 (0.1 – 0.6)
   p for trend    0.001
Tobacco smoking (pack-years)2    
   No 14 (8) 101 (52) 1.0
   1–20 37 (20) 26 (13) 8.7 (3.2 – 23.6)
   >20 129 (72) 67 (35) 7.7 (3.4 – 17.7)
   p for trend    <0.001
Alcohol drinking (drink-years)2    
   No 36 (20) 130 (67) 1.0
   1–40 44 (24) 34 (18) 3.0 (1.4 – 6.4)
   >40 100 (56) 30 (15) 7.2 (3.6 – 14.7)
   p for trend    <0.001
Betel quid chewing (pack-years)2    
   No 82 (46) 175 (90) 1.0
   1–20 26 (15) 7 (4) 3.9 (1.4 – 10.8)
   >20 69 (39) 12 (6) 5.6 (2.5 – 12.5)
   p for trend    <0.001
  1. 1 Odds ratios were adjusted for covariates in the table.
  2. 2One drink corresponds to 15.75-g of alcohol; one smoked pack and chewed pack correspond to 20-cigarettes and 10-betel quids, respectively.