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Table 4 Univariate analysis of factors influencing 140-day survival among patients in whom initial TAE was successfully performed (n = 15).

From: Outcomes and factors influencing survival in cirrhotic cases with spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter study

50% Survival time: 140 days Patients who died within 140 days Patients who survived longer than 140 days p – value
Patients (n) 9 6  
Age (years) 67.1 ± 6.1 68.8 ± 8.2 NS
Sex (n, %)    
   Male 8 (89%) 5 (83%) NS
   Female 1 (11%) 1 (17%)  
Etiology of LC (n, %)    
   HCV 5 (56%) 5 (83%)  
   HBV 1 (11%) 0 (0%) NS
   Alcohol 1 (11%) 0 (0%)  
   NonB-NonC 2 (22%) 1 (17%)  
Past history of HCC treatment (n, %)    
   presence 8 (89%) 4 (67%) NS
   absence 1 (11%) 2 (33%)  
Admission duration for treatment of HCC 3.6 ± 3.1 1.7 ± 1.6 NS
Months from first treatment of HCC 22.6 ± 21.9 27.0 ± 24.6 NS
Shock (n, %)    
   presence 3 (33%) 3 (50%) NS
   absence 6 (67%) 3 (50%)  
Albumin (g/dL) 3.3 ± 0.4 3.4 ± 0.3 NS
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.5 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.6 NS
PT (INR) 1.30 ± 0.19 1.29 ± 0.15 NS
ICG at 15 min (%) 35.1 ± 17.1 32.0 ± 11.0 NS
AFP (ng/ml) 1686 250 NS
PIVKA-II (mAU/mL) 7186 7758 NS
Ascites (n, %)    
   presence 5 (56%) 4 (67%) NS
   absence 4 (44%) 2 (33%)  
Hepatic encephalopathy (n, %)    
   presence 4 (44%) 4 (67%) NS
   absence 5 (56%) 2 (33%)  
AST (IU/L) 86 ± 59 66 ± 41 NS
ALT (IU/L) 58 ± 39 46 ± 33 NS
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.7 ± 1.4 11.7 ± 2.4 NS
Platelet count (× 104) 16.7 ± 12.3 16.4 ± 9.5 NS
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.80 ± 0.14 0.86 ± 0.16 NS
Child-Pugh classification (n, %)    
   A 3 (33%) 2 (33%)  
   B 4 (45%) 2 (33%) NS
   C 2 (22%) 2 (33%)  
Child-Pugh score 7.7 ± 2.0 8.0 ± 2.1 NS
Number of tumors (n, %)    
   single 2 (22%) 1 (17%) NS
   multiple 7 (78%) 5 (83%)  
Maximum tumor size (cm) 7.4 ± 1.7 6.3 ± 3.3 NS (p = 0.1221)
Maximum tumor size (n, %)    
   ≤ 7 cm 1 (11%) 5 (83%) p = 0.0052
   > 7 cm 8 (89%) 1 (17%)  
Portal vein tumor thrombosis    
   presence 6 (67%) 1 (17%) NS (p = 0.0572)
   absence 3 (33%) 5 (83%)  
Clinical stage    
   II, III 5 (56%) 5 (83%) NS
   IVA, IVB 4 (44%) 1 (17%)  
  1. Abbreviations: TAE, transcatheter arterial embolization: LC, liver cirrhosis: HCV, hepatitis C virus: HBV, hepatitis B virus: HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma: PT (INR), prothrombin time (international ratio): ICG, indocyanine green: AFP, alpha-fetoprotein: PIVKA-II, protein induced vitamin K absence-II: AST, aspartate aminotransferase: ALT, alanine aminotransferase: NS, not significant.