Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of studies regarding the epidemiology of constipation in Oceania.

From: Epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania: a systematic review

First author, year of publication, setting Type of study Definition of constipation Study population (% of responders) Prevalence per 100 Factors significantly associated with increased odds for constipation Quality score+ Comments
Howell SC 2006 Sydney [32] Mailed questionnaire survey Rome II criteria 1673 (42.6) persons, 25–64 yr, randomly selected from 28 districts 30.7 Upper-middle educational social class. Female gender. 6 F/M 1.4
Campbell 1992 New Zealand [33] Interview-questionnaire survey and a dietary assessment ≤ 3 DPW, strained at stools, taking laxatives every 2–3 days 856 (91) participants> 70 years registered with the five general practitioners serving a rural township of 13500 people 4.3 had ≤ 3 DPW 20.3 had one of the three factors that may indicate constipation Female gender and age 3 F/M 1.76
Bytzer P 2001 Sydney [34] Mailed questionnaire survey At least one of < 3 DPW, hard or lumpy stools, anal blockage, during preceding 3 months 8555 (57), divided into 5 socioeconomic classes, from 1st (highest) to 5th (lowest) quintiles 1st: 6.3
2nd: 8.7
3rd: 9.6
4th: 10.3
5th: 10.2
Low socioeconomic class. 6  
Chiarelli P 2000 Australia [35] Questionnaire survey Sometimes or often experiencing constipation symptoms during the preceding 12 months 14761 (41) women 18–23 yr
14070 (54) women 45–50 yr
12893 (37) women 70–75 yr
14.1 (18–23 yr)
26.6 (45–50 yr)
27.7 (70–75 yr)
Haemorrhoids and 'other bowel problems' in all three cohorts. Parity in the young cohort. Hysterectomy, prolapse repair, and medications in the middle-aged and older cohorts. 3  
Talley NJ 2004 New Zealand [36] Questionnaire survey Defined below* 924 persons 26 yr old, from a birth cohort (94 of total original sample) 19.9 Female gender. 5 F/M 1.3
  1. Abbreviations DPW: defecations per week, F/M: female/male ratio, Rome II criteria: at least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months, of two or more of: < 3 DPW, hard or lumpy stools in > 1/4 of defecations, straining in > 1/4, digital manipulation of stools in > 1/4, sensation of incomplete evacuation in > 1/4, sensation of anorectal obstruction or blockage in > 1/4, *: at least one of less than three bowel movements weekly, hard or lumpy stools, straining on defecation, incomplete evacuation, in the preceding 12 months, RCT: randomized controlled trial, +: critical appraisal guidelines for research articles determining prevalence, developed by Loney et al14