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Table 1 Frequency of demographic factors and risk factors stratified by ethnicity, and abnormal elevations of biochemical functions (ALT, AST, and GGT) in an Atayal aboriginal community of Taiwan

From: Prevalence and determinants of biochemical dysfunction of the liver in Atayal Aboriginal community of Taiwan: Is betel nut chewing a risk factor?

  Ethnic groups    
  Aboriginal Nonaboriginal ALT>=37(%) AST>=37(%) GGT>=61(%)
No. of subjects 2063 947 496(16.5) * 454(15.1) * 675(22.4) *
Aboriginal    429(20.8) * 377(18.2) * 591(28.6) *
Age(year)      
   ≤ 20 3 1 1(25.0) 0(0) 1(25.0)
   21–40 732* 262 191*(19.2) 194*(19.5) 240(24.1)
   41–60 743 370 211(18.9) 190(17.0) 317*(28.5)
   ≥ 61 585 314 93(10.3) 70(7.8) 116(12.9)
Gender      
   Male 992 460 357(24.5) * 321(22.1) * 508(34.9) *
   Female 1071 487 139(8.9) 133(8.5) 167(10.7)
Cigarette smoking 930* 252 248(21.0) * 339(28.7) * 460(38.9) *
Alcohol drinking 1226* 267 295(19.8) * 410(27.5) * 577(38.6) *
Betel quid chewing 995* 122 399(35.7)* 375(33.6)* 290(26.0)
HBsAg(+) 441 197 153(24.0) * 147(23.1) * 154(24.1) *
Anti-HCV(+) 61 25 31(36.1) * 33(38.3) * 31(36.1) *
BMI>25 840* 277 384(34.4) * 341(30.5) 392(35.1)*
  1. *p < 0.001 for crude chi-square test of association between individual risk factors and aboriginal ethnicity