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Table 2 Univariate analysis of putative risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in a case-control study of volunteer blood donors from two large blood banks, Karachi, Pakistan

From: Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan

Variables Cases Controls OR† 95% CI
  n = 64 % n = 260 %   
Blood bank       
   Blood bank 1 38 (59.4) 118 (45.4) 1.0 -
   Blood bank II 26 (40.6) 142 (54.6) 0.6 0.3–1.0
Age (completed years)       
   15–25 23 (35.9) 139 (53.5) 1.0 -
   26–35 29 (45.3) 86 (33.1) 2.0 1.1–3.8
   > 36 12 (18.8) 35 (13.5) 2.1 0.9–5.6
Ethnicity       
   Mohajir 30 (46.9) 158 (60.8) 1.0 -
   Punjabi 8 (12.5) 45 (17.3) 0.9 0.4–2.2
   Pathan 11 (17.2) 17 (6.5) 3.4 1.5–8.0
   Sindhi 5 (7.8) 15 (5.8) 1.8 0.6–5.2
   Baloch and others 10 (15.6) 25 (9.6) 2.1 0.9–4.8
Education (completed school years)       
   >10 34 (53.1) 159 (61.2) 1.0 -
   ≤ 10 30 (46.9) 101 (38.8) 1.4 0.8–2.5
Marital status       
   Never married 29 (45.3) 146 (56.2) 1.0 -
   Ever married 35 (54.7) 114 (43.8) 1.5 0.9–2.7
Profession       
   Un-employed 8 (12.5) 50 (19.2) 1.0 -
   Self-employed 19 (29.7) 39 (15.0) 3.0 1.1 – 8.6
   Service provider 37 (57.8) 171 (65.8) 1.4 0.6 – 3.4
*Household income (Pak Rs./mo)       
   > 15000 11 (18.3) 33 (15.3) 1.0 -
   8001–15000 16 (26.7) 71 (33.0) 0.7 0.3 – 1.8
   5001–8000 9 (15.0) 50 (23.3) 0.5 0.2 – 1.6
   ≤ 5000 24 (40.0) 61 (28.4) 1.2 0.5 – 2.9
Number of times donated blood       
   1 21 (32.8) 93 (35.8) 1.0 -
   2 13 (20.3) 52 (20.0) 1.1 0.5–2.6
   >2 30 (46.9) 115 (44.2) 1.2 0.6–2.3
History of hospital admission       
   0 50 (78.1) 196 (75.4) 1.0 -
   1 13 (20.3) 53 (20.4) 0.9 0.5–2.0
   >1 1 (1.6) 11 (4.2) 0.4 0.1–2.8
History of dental treatment       
   Never had dental treatment 31 (48.4) 183 (70.4) 1.0 -
   Treated by dentist 24 (24.0) 73 (28.1) 1.9 1.1–3.5
   Treated by others 9 (9.0) 4 (1.5) 13.2 3.9–45.8
Last injection received (completed months)       
   Never received injection 5 (7.8) 63 (24.2) 1.0 -
   ≥ 6 34 (53.1) 123 (47.3) 3.5 1.3–9.3
   < 6 25 (39.1) 74 (28.5) 4.3 1.5–11.8
Injections received in last one year       
   0 27 (42.2) 167 (64.2) 1.0 -
   1 8 (12.5) 19 (7.3) 2.6 1.0–6.5
   2 – 5 19 (29.7) 49 (18.8) 2.4 1.2–4.7
   ≥ 6 10 (15.6) 25 (9.6) 2.5 1.1–5.7
Injections received in five years       
   0 15 (23.4) 119 (45.8) 1.0 -
   1–5 23 (35.9) 84 (32.3) 2.2 1.1–4.4
   > 5 26 (40.6) 57 (21.9) 3.6 1.8–7.4
Injections received in ten years       
   0 40 (62.5) 167 (64.2) 1.0 -
   1–10 16 (16.0) 75 (28.8) 0.9 0.5–1.7
   >10 8 (8.0) 18 (6.9) 1.9 0.7–4.6
Type of syringe used for the last injection       
   Never had injection 8 (12.5) 92 (35.4) 1.0 -
   Plastic syringe 31 (48.4) 131 (50.4) 2.7 1.1–6.2
   Glass syringe 25 (39.1) 37 (14.2) 7.8 3.2–18.8
IV infusion received from       
   Never had drip 36 (56.3) 156 (60.0) 1.0 -
   Hospital 6 (9.4) 49 (18.8) 0.5 0.2–1.3
   GP's and others 22 (34.4) 55 (21.2) 1.7 0.9–3.2
IV infusion received in last one year       
   0 53 (82.8) 240 (92.3) 1.0 -
   1 5 (7.8) 16 (6.2) 1.4 0.5–4.0
   ≥ 2 6 (9.4) 4 (1.5) 6.8 1.9–25.0
IV infusion received in last five years       
   0 47 (73.4) 202 (77.7) 1.0 -
   1–4 12 (18.8) 54 (20.8) 1.0 0.5–1.9
   ≥ 5 5 (7.8) 4 (1.5) 5.3 1.4–20.8
IV infusions received in last ten years       
0 42 (65.6) 171 (65.8) 1.0 -
   1–4 15 (23.4) 79 (30.4) 0.8 0.5–1.5
   ≥ 5 7 (10.9) 10 (3.8) 2.9 1.0–8.0
Ear pierced       
   No 62 (96.9) 248 (95.4) 1.0 -
   Yes 2 (3.1) 12 (4.6) 0.7 0.2–3.1
Tattooing       
   No 61 (95.3) 249 (95.8) 1.0 -
   Yes 3 (4.7) 11 (4.2) 1.1 0.3–4.1
Shaving from barber       
   No 17 (26.6) 100 (38.5) 1.0 -
   Yes 47 (73.4) 160 (61.5) 1.7 0.9–3.2
Frequency of going to barber       
   Never 17 (26.6) 100 (38.5) 1.0 -
   Daily 17 (26.6) 65 (25.0) 1.5 0.7–3.2
   Once a week 19 (29.7) 59 (22.7) 1.9 0.9–3.9
   More than once a week 11 (17.2) 36 (13.8) 1.8 0.8–4.2
Death of a family member due to liver disease       
   No 55 (85.9) 24.8 (95.4) 1.0 -
   Yes 9 (14.1) 12 (4.6) 3.4 1.4–8.4
Lived with jaundiced family member       
   No 38 (59.4) 190 (73.1) 1.0 -
   Yes 26 (40.6) 70 (26.9) 1.9 1.0–3.4
History of sexual contact       
   No history of sexual contact 24 (37.5) 130 (50.0) 1.0 -
   Sexual contact with ≥ 1 partners 40 (62.5) 130 (50.0) 1.6 0.9–3.0
  1. • Commercial Sex worker Odds ratio Confidence Interval
  2. χ Who provides services like laborer, driver, policeman, factory worker etc.