Skip to main content

Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors associated with delayed post-Operative bleeding

From: Risk factors for early and delayed post-operative bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric neoplasms, including patients with continued use of antithrombotic agents

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Risk factor OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Male gender (vs. Female) 3.38 (0.41-27.32) 0.25   
Age ≥70 years (vs. ≤69 years) 0.67 (0.17-2.53) 0.55   
Tumor location Lower (vs. Upper and Middle) 1.05 (0.28-3.99) 0.55   
Continued use of LDA 1.98 (0.23-16.4) 0.52   
Continued use of LDA + heparin replacement N/A N/A   
Heparin replacement 13.89 (3.48-55.39)  <0.01* 12.23 (2.63-56.77)  <0.01*
Cessation of antithrombotic agent during ESD procedure (vs. No antithrombotic therapy) N/A N/A   
Liver cirrhosis 1.67 (0.20-13.9) 0.63   
CKD undergoing hemodialysis 33.16 (6.67-164.82)  <0.01* 28.35 (4.67-172.11)  <0.01*
Specimen size ≥40 mm (vs. < 40 mm) 0.92 (0.19-4.55) 0.92   
Procedure time ≥90 min (vs. < 90 min) 2.56 (0.67-9.78) 0.16   
Second-look endoscopy (vs. No second-look endoscopy) N/A N/A   
  1. OR: Odds ratio.
  2. CI: Confidence interval.
  3. LDA: Low-dose aspirin.
  4. CKD: Chronic kidney disease.
  5. N/A: Not applicable.
  6. *p<0.05.