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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of gastric lesions in patients with gastric neoplasms

From: Risk factors for early and delayed post-operative bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric neoplasms, including patients with continued use of antithrombotic agents

  Total n = 425 Post-operative bleeding n = 20 No post-operative bleeding n = 405 p-value
Sex (male/female) 302/123 18/2 284/121 n. s.*
Age (years, mean ± SD) 72.1 ± 8.6 71.9 ± 10.0 72.1 ± 8.5 n. s.**
Tumor location (n, %)     
 Upper 65 (15) 3 (15) 62 (15) n. s.*
 Middle 179 (42) 6 (30) 173 (43) n. s.*
 Lower 181 (43) 11 (55) 170 (42) n. s.*
Tumor size (mm, mean ± SD) 18.4 ± 12.6 29.6 ± 21.8 17.8 ± 11.7 <0.05**
Specimen size (mm, mean ± SD) 33.9 ± 13.3 41.3 ± 17.6 33.6 ± 12.9 0.07**
Invasion depth     
 M 396 18 378 n. s.*
 SM1 15 1 14 n. s.*
 SM2 14 1 13 n. s.*
Ulceration (+/-) 418/7 19/1 399/6 n. s.*
Medication used (n, %)     
 Continued use of LDA 21 (9) 2 (10) 19 (5) n. s.*
 Continued use of LDA + heparin replacement 4 (1) 1 (5) 3 (0.7) n. s.*
 Heparin replacement 21 (5) 5 (25) 16 (4) <0.05*
 Cessation of antithrombotic agent during ESD procedure 41 (9) 2 (10) 39 (10) n. s.*
Comorbidity (n, %)     
 Liver cirrhosis 20 (5) 2 (10) 18 (4) n. s.*
 CKD undergoing hemodialysis 20 (5) 4 (20) 16 (4) <0.05*
 Second-look endoscopy (+/-) 356/69 19/1 337/68 n. s.*
  1. LDA: Low-dose aspirin.
  2. CKD: Chronic kidney disease.
  3. *Chi-square test.
  4. **Unpaired t-test.
  5. n.s.: not significant.