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Table 4 Association between the frequency of GERD symptoms and intake of certain food items (GERD patients vs. no-GERD population controls)

From: Dietary guideline adherence for gastroesophageal reflux disease

Frequency > = Several times/week Once a month to once a week
  N OR1 95% CI N OR1 95% CI
  Case Control     Case Control    
Softdrinks2           
 None 46 50 1.0 (ref)    46 50 1.0 (ref)   
 >1/week 97 70 1.54 0.93 2.58 31 47 0.75 0.41 1.39
Coffee3           
 None 56 37 1.0 (ref)    56 37 1.0 (ref)   
 2+/day 83 53 0.98 0.56 1.72 47 27 1.25 0.65 2.39
Tea4           
 None 29 36 1.0 (ref)    29 36 1.0 (ref)   
 1+/day 57 50 1.54 0.81 2.93 20 37 0.70 0.34 1.47
Alcohol5           
 None 72 31 1.0 (ref)    72 31 1.0 (ref)   
 <1 drink/day 91 82 0.51 0.30 0.85 56 36 0.69 0.38 1.26
 1+ drink/day 53 82 0.68 0.35 1.30 30 37 0.88 0.42 1.85
Wine           
 None 48 51     48 51 1.0 (ref)   
 1 + glass/day 56 111 0.64 0.37 1.10 36 47 1.02 0.54 1.91
Beer           
 None 31 57 1.0 (ref)    31 57 1.0 (ref)   
 1 + drink/day 35 120 0.52 0.28 0.96 28 59 0.89 0.46 1.71
Liquor           
 None 19 74 1.0 (ref)    19 74 1.0 (ref)   
 1 + shot/day 43 120 1.44 0.77 2.70 17 70 1.07 0.51 2.26
Citrus           
 <2servings/week 63 78 1.0 (ref)    63 78 1.0 (ref)   
 2+/week 69 118 0.62 0.40 0.98 55 132 1.03 0.62 1.69
Tomatoes           
 None 28 113 1.0 (ref)    28 113 1.0 (ref)   
 1+/week 55 171 1.35 0.80 2.28 31 91 1.44 0.80 2.59
Fried foods           
 <1serving/week 20 121     20 121 1.0 (ref)   
 1+ 59 167 2.10 1.19 3.70 29 93 1.87 1.00 3.52
Total fat           
 1st Tertile (<57 g/day) 48 57 1.0 (ref)    48 57 1.0 (ref)   
 2nd Tertile 88 67 1.57 0.94 2.62 40 38 1.27 0.70 2.31
 3rd T >90 g/day 71 70 1.69 0.98 2.91 44 40 1.89 1.03 3.47
Portion size           
 <20% large portion 33 52 1.0 (ref)    33 52 1.0 (ref)   
 40 +% 61 71 1.23 0.75 2.02 33 43 1.01 0.57 1.77
  1. 1Models are adjusted for smoking and education.
  2. 2Not including diet soda.
  3. 3Includes both caffeinated and decaffeinated types.
  4. 4Excludes herbal tea.
  5. 5Excludes individuals who are occasional drinkers (more than once a year but less than one drink/week).