Jejunal cytokine assays for (A) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), (B) interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β), and (C) interleukin-10 (IL-10) from experimental Wistar rats challenged by the regional basic northeast diet (RBD) and following lactose administration. The RBD was given ad libitum for 14 days and lactose (30 g/Kg, by gavage) was administered after the 8th day of the experiment. Cytokines were measured from jejunum homogenates by ELISA. Values represent mean ± SEM and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. At least four animals were used per group. At least N = 8 for all groups. Groups: nourished control, undernourished control (UN), undernourished control supplemented with zinc (UN + Zn), undernourished control challenged by lactose (UN + Lac), and lactose-challenged undernourished rats supplemented with zinc (UN + Zn + Lac).