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Table 3 Comparison of chronic comorbidities among anal fissure cases versus age- and sex-matched controls (1 to 3 matching)

From: The epidemiology and treatment of anal fissures in a population-based cohort

  Cases   Controls   
Description N % N % P-value
No. of patients* (% of cohort) 1062   3186   
Elixhauser comorbidities:      
AIDS 5 0.5% 7 0.2% 0.182
Alcohol abuse 24 2.3% 97 3.0% 0.183
Chronic blood loss anemia 12 1.1% 38 1.2% 0.870
Coagulopathy 14 1.3% 43 1.4% 0.939
Congestive heart failure 27 2.5% 93 2.9% 0.521
Constipation 149 14.0% 114 3.6% <0.001
Deficiency anemias 87 8.2% 227 7.1% 0.250
Depression 149 14.0% 387 12.2% 0.110
Diabetes (no chr complication) 147 13.8% 402 12.6% 0.303
Diabetes (w/chr complications) 30 2.8% 117 3.7% 0.191
Drug abuse 29 2.7% 112 3.5% 0.216
Fluid and electrolyte disorders 56 5.3% 168 5.3% 1.000
Hypertension 344 32.4% 959 30.1% 0.161
Hypothyroidism 156 14.7% 330 10.4% <0.001
Liver disease 34 3.2% 84 2.6% 0.332
Lymphoma 8 0.8% 17 0.5% 0.418
Metastatic cancer 12 1.1% 23 0.7% 0.203
Obesity 138 13.0% 246 7.7% <0.001
Other neurological disorders 48 4.5% 161 5.1% 0.486
Paralysis 7 0.7% 24 0.8% 0.755
Peripheral vascular disease 37 3.5% 109 3.4% 0.923
Pregnancy 72 6.8% 276 8.7% 0.053
Psychoses 99 9.3% 256 8.0% 0.189
Pulmonary circulation disease 23 2.2% 60 1.9% 0.565
Renal failure 29 2.7% 84 2.6% 0.869
Rheumatoid arth./ col. vasc. dz 37 3.5% 120 3.8% 0.673
Solid tumor - no metastasis 55 5.2% 118 3.7% 0.035
Valvular disease 30 2.8% 111 3.5% 0.299
Weight loss 40 3.8% 54 1.7% <0.001
Any Elixhauser diagnosis 741 69.8% 2091 65.6% 0.013
  1. *The case–control comparison is limited to adults age 18 and older because the Elixhauser comorbidity classification system is not validated in children.