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Table 4 Comparison of EGF genotype frequencies in HCC patients with control subjects among non-Asians in Los Angeles, California, and Chinese in southern Guangxi, China, stratified by cytokine genotypes

From: Genetic polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor in relation to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: two case-control studies

Th1 and Th2 genotypes* EGF 61A > G Non-Asians in Los Angeles Chinese in southern Guangxi
Ca/Co* OR (95% CI)† OR (95% CI)‡ Ca/Co* OR (95% CI)† OR (95% CI)‡
No. of low-activity Th1 genotypes
 0–1 A/A 13/27 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 70/76 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
A/G + G/G 38/86 1.14 (0.50–2.63) 1.24 (0.46–3.34) 61/77 0.87 (0.54–1.39) 0.63 (0.32–1.23)
 2–3 A/A 11/25 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 55/42 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
A/G + G/G 50/60 2.17 (0.91–5.18) 2.77 (1.00–7.66) 63/50 0.95 (0.55–1.65) 0.89 (0.40v1.97)
No. of low-activity Th2 genotypes
 0 A/A 7/13 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 72/61 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
A/G + G/G 18/28 1.85 (0.48–7.15) 1.36 (0.23–8.27) 55/48 0.97 (0.58–1.63) 0.78 (0.36–1.69)
 1–2 A/A 17/39 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 53/57 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
A/G + G/G 70/118 1.63 (0.83–3.20) 2.27 (1.01–5.11) 69/79 0.95 (0.58–1.56) 0.84 (0.42–1.71)
No. of low-activity Th1 and Th2 genotypes
Th1 = 0–1 and Th2 = 1–2 A/A 13/19 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 35/31 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  A/G + G/G 33/70 0.86 (0.36–2.04) 0.95 (0.33–2.70) 36/48 0.69 (0.36–1.33) 0.57 (0.21–1.54)
Th1 = 2–3 or Th2 = 0 A/A 11/33 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 90/87 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  A/G + G/G 55/76 2.75 (1.18–6.38) 3.34 (1.24–9.03) 88/79 1.07 (0.70–1.63) 0.85 (0.47–1.56)
  1. * Number of cases/number of controls; subjects with unknown Th1 and/or Th2 genotypes were excluded from this analysis.
  2. † Adjusted for age, sex, and race; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  3. ‡ Further adjusted for level of education, smoking (non-smokers or long-term ex-smokers, current smokers or recent ex-smokers with <20 cigarettes/day, current smokers or recent ex-smokers with 20+ cigarettes/day), alcohol consumption (non-drinkers, <7, 7–14, 14–21, and 21+ drinks/day), and serology of hepatitis B and C virus, if applicable.