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Table 2 Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetic and non-diabetic GERD patients

From: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in type 2 diabetics: symptom load and pathophysiologic aspects - a retro-pro study

  T2D GERD patients Non-diabetic GERD patients OR (95% CI) p
n = 65 n = 130
Heartburn 50 (76.9) 115 (88.5) 0.47 (0.21;0.99) 0.046
Epigastric pain 40 (61.5) 85 (65.4) 0.85 (0.46;1.57) n.s.
Regurgitation 31 (47.7) 94 (72.3) 0.36 (0.20;0.67) 0.001
Respiratory symptoms 40 (61.5) 82 (63.1) 0.94 (0.51;1.73) n.s.
Odynophagia 6 (9.2) 9 (6.9) 1.37 (0.47;4.02) n.s.
Globus sensation 18 (27.7) 18 (13.8) 2.38 (1.14;4.80) 0.021
Dysphagia 21 (32.3) 17 (13.1) 3.40 (0.90;12.79) 0.001
Flatulence 13 (20.0) 59 (45.4) 0.30 (0.15;0.61) 0.001
Chronic cough 28 (43.1) 59 (45.4) 0.91 (0.50;1.66) n.s.
Hoarseness 17 (26.2) 32 (24.6) 1.08 (0.55;20.14) n.s.
Bronchitis 10 (15.4) 22 (16.9) 0.89 (0.39;2.02) n.s.
Asthma bronchiale 9 (13.8) 28 (21.5) 0.59 (0.26;1.33) n.s.
  1. n.s. not significant, p p-value.
  2. Data are provided as n(%), multiple citations possible; all parameters were tested using univariate logistic regression models.