Recurrence is associated with instability through time. ( A ) Average weighted UniFrac distances (±s.e.m.) between surgical and post-operative colonoscopy biopsies for an individual. The asterisks indicate a significant difference: ** P<0.005. ( B ) Heat map showing probability of remission or recurrence based on a single pairwise weighted UniFrac distance at surgery and post-operative colonoscopy, binned in increments of 0.1. Each row adds up to 1. ( C ) Phylum-level classifications of biopsies acquired at surgery (“surg”) and post-operative colonoscopy (“colo”) suggest greater stability in remission. Location (i = ileum; c = colon) and presence of inflammation at the biopsy site are indicated.