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Table 2 Odds ratios for prior antibiotic use in individuals with coeliac disease, small-intestinal inflammation and normal mucosa a

From: Antibiotic exposure and the development of coeliac disease: a nationwide case–control study

  Coeliac disease Inflammation Normal mucosaa
  Cases Controls Odds ratio 95% CI Cases Controls Odds ratio 95% CI Cases Controls Odds ratio 95% CI
  (%) (%)    (%) (%)    (%) (%)   
Any antibiotics b 793/2933 (27.0) 3081/14571 (21.1) 1.40 1.27-1.53 836/2118 (39.5) 2687/10442 (25.7) 1.90 1.72–2.10 205/620 (33.1) 757/3069 (24.7) 1.58 1.30–1.92
Courses of antibiotics             
1-2 courses 639/2779 (23.0) 2573/14063 (18.3) 1.36 1.23-1.50 619/1901 (32.6) 2146/9901 (21.7) 1.75 1.57-1.95 153/568 (26.9) 621/2933 (21.2) 1.45 1.17-1.80
≥3 courses 154/2294 (6.7) 508/11998 (4.2) 1.58 1.31-1.92 217/1499 (14.5) 541/8296 (6.5) 2.50 2.10-2.97 52/467 (11.1) 136/2448 (5.6) 2.28 1.56-3.33
Sex             
Males 278/1137 (24.5) 1026/5645 (18.2) 1.48 1.27-1.72 282/782 (36.1) 824/3848 (21.4) 2.10 1.78-2.48 69/224 (30.8) 217/1099 (19.7) 1.93 1.38–2.69
Females 515/1796 (28.7) 2055/8926 (23.0) 1.36 1.21-1.52 554/1336 (41.5) 1863/6594 (28.3) 1.81 1.60-2.04 136/396 (34.3) 540/1970 (27.4) 1.43 1.12–1.82
  1. Odds ratios estimated through conditional logistic regression modelling.
  2. a Positive coeliac disease serology 180 days before biopsy and until 30 days after biopsy in individuals with normal mucosa.
  3. b Antibiotics used between July 1st 2005 and January 29th 2008.